In this episode, I am answering questions from my listeners. I will cover a variety of topics, including breath-holding, how light affects health, hormesis, causes of fatigue, and much much more.
In this first Q & A, I will cover:
- The conventional (and misguided) approach to treating fatigue
- How to set up your day for optimal circadian rhythm
- The importance of hormesis for optimal health
- The best way to overcome afternoon and evening energy crashes
- Why young people can get chronic fatigue
- The powerful steps you can take to heal a traumatic brain injury
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Let me say welcome everyone, welcome to this ask me anything session with yours truly. I hope you’ve come prepared, and I hope you have some questions. If you posted already and before I logged on here, the questions you wrote in the post may not appear, so please just copy and paste them and type them in again. I see only two here from Mon and Melanie, and so that’s the way the system works, only what appears after I’ve logged in appear’s for me. Welcome, it’s such a pleasure to have you. First of all just let me know you can see and hear me okay. Say, “Hi,” let me know where you’re from, all that good stuff. I see Deb, Mon Melanie, there’s a little bit of a delay here before people respond, so you’re going to see that in my response here. Jennifer. Okay, I already have a couple of questions here, and I have some other questions from people in the groups as well.
Testing for the root cause of fatigue
I have a question here from Daniel, he said, “What’s the best testing to try to get to the root of chronic fatigue? This is somewhat of a big answer. Chronic fatigue is a symptom first of all, and it is a symptom of low energy. There is potentially all kinds of things that can result in chronic fatigue. Let me break this down this way, from a conventional medical approach if you go to a conventional doctor say, “I’m fatigued.” By the way, something like one out of every three doctors visits is actually from a person just feeling fatigued and not really knowing why and wanting to get that figured out. They go to the doctor they say, “I’m fatigued.” The doctor generally asks them some questions, does a standard blood panel. There’s research, and this is from a review from a few years ago, some evidence-based guidelines that were published in the journal of The American Family Physician, and it’s called Fatigue and Overview. They publish basically this compilation of the scientific research for doctors, here’s the best guidelines based on the evidence for how to treat fatigue.
There was a few notable findings from that, but one of the most interesting things that they said in this paper is, basically, what you should do with a person complaining with fatigue is run a standard blood panel. They also said, 95% of the time, that blood panel will give them no unique insight into that person’s fatigue. Maybe there’ll be some random abnormality but more often than not there are no notable abnormalities that can account for the fatigue symptoms, and patients are told, “Your blood tests look normal.” 95% of the time, that test gives no real insight into that person’s root causes.
Now, you should also know, this is somewhat of an interesting thing around tests and the science around accuracy and validity of these tests. You should also know that that standard blood panel has the best science backing it up to show that whenever it detects some abnormality, that you can trust that that data is meaningful, that it’s reliable, that it’s accurate, that it’s valid. In contrast to once you start to go into the realm of all the other tests within, for example, functional medicine outside of standard blood panel type tests, there’s a lot of issues of running into, is this test really reliable? Is it accurate? Is it valid? Is it giving you some meaningful result? Is there actually data? Is there research showing that abnormalities on this test actually link up with these symptoms?
There’s many potential examples but there is one really massive example that’s been prominent within functional medicine, natural health circles for a couple of decades now, and that is the idea of adrenal fatigue. For many years it became common thinking for natural health practitioners and functional medicine practitioners to assume that fatigue symptoms are synonymous with this idea of “adrenal fatigue” which is basically chronic stress wearing out your adrenals, causing low cortisol. Then as a result of low cortisol, then you have the symptom of fatigue.
A couple of years ago, I did an extremely comprehensive analysis of the data on the research that has measured people with and without fatigue and looked at their cortisol levels and HPA axis function. That’s the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and the whole function of that system, but specifically measuring adrenal function and cortisol levels. I’ve done the most comprehensive analysis that has ever been done on that. I published all my work online. I gave all the screenshots and quotes and links to all the research, and basically, the quick answer- and this is a one-minute summary of about six months of my life. The quick summary is the majority of that research shows that there is absolutely no reliable link whatsoever between abnormal adrenal function or abnormal cortisol levels and the symptoms of fatigue, or burnout, or chronic fatigue. No reliable link whatsoever.
To put that another way, if you took a practitioner who believes in adrenal fatigue, and who swears adrenal fatigue is real, who claims to diagnose people with adrenal fatigue all the time, and you gave them a stack of 100 cortisol test results. They were randomized such that that practitioner knew nothing about the history of that patient, the symptoms of that patient, 50 of them were normal, healthy people without fatigue, and 50 of them were people with severe burnout, chronic fatigue, or even chronic fatigue syndrome, et cetera. You said to that practitioner, “Tell me which of these 50 cortisol results are the healthy people, and tell me which of these 50 are the people with chronic fatigue.”
That person as much as they swear to understand this idea of adrenal fatigue and the link between adrenals and fatigue, and they can give you all kinds of fancy explanations around that, based on the data– Again, I’ve reviewed all this data. It’s all put in the public domain. Based on that data, we know that that practitioner would have as good of a chance of getting that right, or getting it even remotely right as basically flipping a coin, as random guessing. There is no reliable link between cortisol and adrenal function and fatigue symptoms. There’s that too.
Again, conventional medicine, we have this highly accurate, reliable, great, scientifically-validated blood test. The problem is 95% of the time, it doesn’t give any insight into a person’s fatigue root causes. In contrast, within functional medicine, what a lot of practitioners do and within natural health, I’m not trying to bash functional medicine, I like functional medicine. Unfortunately, a lot of people, a lot of practitioners’ brains have been hijacked by this adrenal fatigue, I would say nonsense, that they’re using a test that also does not, even if they think it does, it does not actually give good insight into a person’s fatigue issues.
Now, having said that, there are many other potential tests that one might get. A lot of what tests that you would choose to get are dependent upon a proper history and taking of your symptoms. For example, if you have a history of, “Hey, ever since a year ago, I found mold in my house, and I’ve been sick, and I’ve had these symptoms ever since then.” Now, you know mold exposure seems to be a trigger for those symptoms, and that seems to be a big factor. In that instance, a practitioner might go, “Let’s do a urinary mycotoxin test. Let’s do a test to assess if the mold is still present in your house.” You have bread crumbs on the trail and you know which trail to go down and what test to use, because a lot of these tests are $300, $500 per test. It’s difficult to just say, “I want to do all of them,” because you’re going to spend maybe tens of thousands of dollars.
Another example of this is, let’s say, you’ve got symptoms of a chronic viral infection feeling, and maybe you suspect Lyme disease, or maybe you suspect chronic Epstein-Barr Virus. In an instance like that, there are specific tests that you might do to assess for those things. There’s comprehensive viral, urine PCR tests and blood PCR tests to assess for exposure to those viruses or the levels– If those viruses are present, you can also do antibody titer tests, IGG, IGM titer test, et cetera, et cetera. If somebody reports a history of, for example, chemical exposures, “I’ve got Gulf War illness.” Well, you might have specific kinds of tests that you might implement there. If somebody has got gut issues and a history of antibiotic use, maybe you do tests for the gut.
There’s many, many different types of tests and unfortunately, many of them are not very valid or accurate or are not clinically validated in the sense that the results are meaningful, and there’s data linking whatever those results are to one’s symptoms or illness. Something like Viome or you uBiome is a good example of that. You get results but those results really are not clinically validated to really be linked to, for example, chronic fatigue or cardiovascular disease or something to that effect.
With all of that said, I want to present something that I think is like a new paradigm that I wish people would put more stock in and I wish people would open their minds to. It’s something that appears to be more primitive in one sense and less cutting edge and even less scientific, but I would argue it’s actually way more scientific, and you can glean way more insight into a person’s root causes of their illness by doing things this way.
I’ll give you an example. There was an article by one of my favorite health experts that I really love, that I’ve interviewed on the podcast recently, Dr. David Katz, who’s been a great voice for the power of nutrition and natural health in combating disease. One of the interesting things they’re talking about now, I think it’s the American Heart Association, is the idea of looking at one’s diet as a vital sign. In the same way that you go to a doctor’s office, they take a blood test, they take your vital signs, your pulse, your heart rate, your blood pressure, and then they look at your cholesterol levels and your triglycerides and your blood sugar levels, and yadi yada yada, and they say, “Based on these results, you might be at risk for cardiovascular disease, so let’s put you on statins.” This might be a common way of thinking.
In that scenario, they almost never, for example, look at someone’s diet and measure dietary variables. How often are you eating doughnuts and pizza and ice cream and french fries and potato chips? How often are you eating blueberries and salmon, and beets and tomatoes, and so on and so forth, and broccoli? It seems when you think about this deeply, it is actually absurd and idiotic to be looking only at blood tests to the exclusion of one’s actual dietary habits and lifestyle habits that we know from lots and lots of data. We know those habits are decidedly linked with certain outcomes. We know certain habits are linked with higher risks of brain diseases and cancers and cardiovascular disease and so on and so forth, and chronic fatigue. We know that certain of them are linked with poor gut health. Certain of them are linked with poor circadian rhythm and sleep.
Consider it now that we don’t have a test. There’s really no good test for, for example, mitochondrial function. There’s no good test for how strong is your circadian rhythm? There’s no good test for what does the neurotransmitter balance in your brain look like? There’s 100 things going on in our body that are really, really important to our health, our risk of disease and our symptoms and our energy levels and our mood that we don’t even have good tests for, but we can measure one’s lifestyle habits, one’s nutrition habits, one’s all the other aspects of their lifestyle. I would argue that gives you, in many cases, way more insight into a person’s health problems and gives you direct insight into the root causes of why that person probably has fatigue.
As an example, let’s say you do a blood test and you find elevated levels of CRP, of systemic inflammation. Well, what’s the answer there, to take anti-inflammatory drugs? Let’s say you see high LDL cholesterol and poor blood lipid profiles and high blood pressure? What’s the answer there? Is it to take blood-pressure-lowering drugs and statins to lower your cholesterol? That’s one paradigm. Another paradigm is to go, “Well, what do we know from lots and lots of data about what kinds of nutrition and lifestyle habits are linked with high blood pressure? What kinds of nutrition and lifestyle habits are linked with abnormal blood lipids? What are the strategies that we know optimize those things?”
To many people, this seems like a less sophisticated way because it doesn’t involve extracting blood and doing genetic analysis. It seems less scientific and cutting edge, but I would argue way, way more insightful, and that thinking and that paradigm leads to a strategy to resolve the problem that is orders of magnitude, more sophisticated, and more intelligent than the kind of thinking that goes, “High LDL, let’s prescribe a prescription drug.”
That was a very long answer to this question, but I hope it was a good reframe on this very important question, because there’s so much bad thinking out there, both among the general public, but especially among doctors who think in that kind of paradigm. Conventional doctors don’t receive any education in diet or lifestyle. They receive almost no education. They’re not even equipped to actually address things on the root cause level when we’re talking about diseases of lifestyle, which are, by the way, over 80% of the chronic disease burden, is diseases of nutrition and lifestyle. Think of how absurd this is, that most conventional doctors receive virtually no education whatsoever in the thing that causes over 80% of the chronic disease burden in the modern western world, specifically in the US in particular. Again, this is why I am a huge advocate, and I really believe that a different frame, a different paradigm to measuring one’s diet and lifestyle habits, and looking at them in the same way that we look at blood test results and vital signs would be a vastly, vastly smarter approach.
I’m going to move onto the next question. Deb said, “Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus for 25 years. Have tried everything. How to stop this?” I’ll mention a couple of things, big picture things for people in this situation with chronic viral infections. The virus, the germ is often by many, many people overestimated, and the terrain is underestimated. The terrain is you. Your body is the terrain, your gut health, your overall metabolic health, your levels of inflammation, your levels of immune function, your mitochondrial health, and so on, your hormonal health, all of those things comprise your terrain. Many people in this situation, I’ve seen it so many times where people are looking for the magic wonder compound that is this antiviral compound, natural or prescription that’s going to kill the Epstein-Barr virus. Well, you can’t kill the Epstein-Barr virus. It remains latent in your cells all the time, forever. What determines it’s level of activity is largely a function of your overall health status, your terrain, and how optimized that is so that your immune function can work optimally to suppress that virus and keep it latent rather than allowing it to become active and do lots of replication.
Now, there may be a place for the use of various, for example, antiviral herbs, and immune-supportive herbs, and thing of that nature. Optimizing your terrain through nutrition lifestyle habits, through optimizing your circadian rhythm and sleep, optimizing your brain and the way you operate your brain, decreasing your stress levels, optimizing parasympathetic nervous system tone, vagal activation, hormetic stress, and mitochondrial health, optimizing hormonal health, light exposure, all of these things play a major, major role in allowing your terrain to work optimally to do its job of keeping that virus suppressed. Big picture, I would say terrain, terrain, terrain, focus on the terrain more than anything.
Now, if you want specific help from someone who specializes in combating chronic infections and chronic viral infections, I’ve done a couple of podcasts, two or maybe three, at this point, with Dr. J.E. Williams. He is a specialist in chronic fatigue and viral infections in particular. I would recommend reaching out to him and doing some sessions with him and seeing if he can get you on a personalized plan for dealing with your Epstein-Barr virus. Again, terrain, terrain, terrain. Don’t get sucked into the paradigm of looking for the magical wonder antiviral compound.
How to exercise with fibromyalgia
Melanie said, “Any recommendations for gastritis and constipation? Also, any new recommendation for fibro pain and limitations on meat and exercise?” Gastritis and constipation, that’s really out of my wheelhouse. I’m not going to comment on those specific symptoms, and you probably need to get assessed for what might be the underlying causes of, for example, gastritis. As far as recommendations for fibro pain and limitations on meat and exercise, it’s so radically individual. There’s everything from the extreme of people who are basically bedridden and can’t really move, and if they go for even a five-minute walk, they’re in physical pain for days, to somebody who actually exercises regularly but their muscles feel very sore and tender and painful for a couple of days after exercise.
Now, Dr. Alex Vasquez has written a wonderful book on fibromyalgia. One of the main things that he talks about, as far as the explanation of the root causes of what’s going on, there’s three prongs to it. One is a gut aspect to the condition. Another one is a brain aspect to the condition, and another one is a mitochondrial aspect to it. At the gut level, if you have gut permeability, you have undigested food particles, you have LPS, Lipopolysaccharide endotoxin leaking into your bloodstream, which by the way, all these things are intertwined. LPS, for example, damages mitochondrial function and shuts down energy production.
Now, you have an issue of the mitochondria not being able to produce enough energy, and the cells switch more into lactic acid production via anaerobic metabolism. Once they do that, when you do physical movement, you develop excessive levels of lactic acid which then translate into tender points and damaged tissues at the muscle level. The big picture frame here is to deal with the underlying root causes, you have to correct things at those levels. You have to get the gut corrected, you have to get the mitochondrial issues corrected.
As far as how you modulate your levels of gentle activity and exercise, you do it according to your individual tolerances as you are working towards solving the root issues. You want to stay just below the threshold of what causes you to be debilitated and in a whole bunch of pain. If you can get clear on identifying what is your body’s tolerance for physical movement and exercise, then do your best to get frequent activity but staying below the threshold of what leaves you exhausted for days. Getting to that point is you’re actually causing damage to the system.
You don’t want to damage your tissues. You don’t want to cause harm to your tissues. When it comes to exercise and hormetic stress, the goal is to create a transient stressor that is right around your body’s capacity to deal with stressors such that it stimulates the system to grow stronger and more resilient. Now if you overwhelm the system and your cells capacity to handle that stress load, then all you do is cause damage. You have to find that sweet spot for you. Really, I encourage you to journal and write down what is your experience of doing different levels of activity? What is the level that leaves you exhausted and debilitated or in tons of pain after doing that activity? What is the level that you can get away with and still feel relatively good and stay right in that sweet spot?
How to prime your circadian rhythm
Mon said, “I’ve had amazing improvement with the Energy Blueprint Program and now have a relatively good sleep compared to previously terrible sleep.” Awesome. She said, “So grateful. I have a question about the morning outdoor light exposure. It isn’t always or often possible to be outside at the same time and for the same length of time. Could you say what time differences are still in the effective range and from where onwards the effectiveness goes down? For example, if I most regularly can be outside at 7:45 AM, is it okay to sometimes do it an hour later at 8:45? Also, is it more crucial to go outside as soon as possible after waking up even if I can only spend 10 minutes? Or is it better to go outside 45 minutes after waking up when I can spend 30 to 45 minutes outside? If I don’t wake up at the same time every day, should I make the going outdoor time the same regardless of when I have woken up?”
There’s a million individual personal circumstances of variations here that might lead somebody to say, “Well, what about this scenario? What about that scenario?” Here’s the very short version of the answer. Try as best as you can to be within half an hour of the same wake-up time and the same daytime, daylight sunlight, outdoor light exposure time every day. Definitely within an hour, but ideally within half an hour. Now, as much as possible, you want your time you go to bed and the time you wake up and the time you get bright light exposure to be consistent from one day to the next. Really, really vital to do that well. My friend, Dr. Michael Breus who’s known as the sleep doctor considers this factor–
There’s 50 different factors. We could talk about the strategies, we could talk about to enhance sleep and optimize sleep. He considers consistency of sleep and wake times, bedtimes and wake times to be the single most important variable. I would also lump consistency of bright light exposure time in the morning into that as well. Again, within half an hour is pretty ideal.
What most practitioners of healthy living are not paying enough attention to
Nicholas, this is a great question. What do you think most practitioners of healthy living are not paying enough attention to? Great, great question. I think there’s several things that they’re not paying enough attention to. One of the big ones is what I mentioned before, that there’s way too many people who rely on lab tests to figure out a patient’s or a client’s underlying factors that are causing their symptoms rather than really being experts in nutrition and lifestyle. This is a really common problem. I’ve seen a whole bunch of people who– It’s so common to see people who are experts in tests but don’t really have real deep expertise in nutrition and lifestyle. What they have is they’ve taken courses and they’ve memorized protocols of, “Here’s the test that you give people and then here’s the sort of cookie-cutter protocol you give based on what those test results say. Somebody’s got abnormal this, then you put them on this regimen of supplements and herbs.
In my view, many people are skipping over the real foundation of health. Again, as I said earlier, over 80% of the chronic disease burden is a direct result of lifestyle, they are diseases of lifestyle. One of the biggest mistakes that I see people make is to immediately jump to the fancy stuff, to the tests and to the supplement prescriptions, and to not deeply understand the lifestyle component. Huge, huge problem. Now within that, let me give two other things that I think are massively neglected. One is light exposure. My last book was on red light therapy and near-infrared light therapy. My next book is on sunlight. Let me just tell you right now, when you dig into the research on sunlight, it is mind blowing. I will say that adequate sunlight exposure is as vital to our health as nutrition and exercise are, as vital as nutrition.
How many practitioners are putting the same level of focus on getting their patients or their clients getting adequate sun exposure and adequate light exposure as they are on nutrition or as they are on prescribing supplements? Very, very few. Very few people are really attuned to the science on how vital light is to human health. In many ways, there’s many different mechanisms.
I could talk to you for five hours about all the different mechanisms of how that light is vital to our health in so many ways, from optimizing hormones to optimizing– I was going to say vitamin D, but vitamin D is actually a hormone, to optimizing melatonin levels, also a hormone, to optimizing mitochondrial function, to blood vessel dilation, modulating oxidative stress and inflammation, hormones that regulate appetite and body composition, immune function, on and on and on. Brain function, neurotransmitters and mood, a thousand more amazing benefits, and it is so unbelievably neglected. In fact, so many people still of this very unscientific thinking that humans need to be very ignorant thinking, I should say, that humans need to be avoiding the sun, and you just take your vitamin D pills but stay out of the Sun because the sun is dangerous. Extremely misguided. That’s one thing.
The other thing I’ll mention is hormesis many practitioners are still operating in a paradigm that conceptualizes all stressors as bad, we need to avoid stress. They’re neglecting vital aspects of improving people’s function through challenging the body, through transient metabolic stressors, through hormetic stress, through different kinds of exercise, through through hypoxia and breath-holding practices, through cold exposure and heat exposure and fasting and phytochemicals. All the other xenobiotics and all the other different types of hormetic stressors. They are so vital to improving our function, improving our resilience at the cellular level, and especially building mitochondria to be bigger and stronger so that you build up Your cellular engine so that it can produce more energy.
If you conceptualize fatigue as fundamentally a problem of mitochondria, of too few mitochondria, because mitochondria can die off, of too little and weak mitochondria because they can atrophy, and of dysfunctional damaged mitochondria, because they- factors, the nutrition and lifestyle level can damage our mitochondria, and mitochondria that are shut down that are switched into defense mode instead of energy mode. That’s a reference to the cell danger response, and Dr. Robert Naviaux’s research. Now, your mitochondria have these two modes.of being. They can either be in peacetime metabolism where they’re pumping out lots of energy or to the degree that they sense threats and dangers stressors in the environment. They’ll shift out of energy mode into wartime metabolism or defense mode, where energy production decreases and resources are devoted to defense instead of producing energy.
Again, mitochondria, they shrink, they shrivel, they get damaged, they get dysfunctional, you lose mitochondria that you get less of them, and they can be shut down. If you conceptualize fatigue as that issue, now you have very clear insight into the fact that if you just try to, let’s say, optimize someone’s diet, or remove psychological stress, or take them off exercise, because exercise is a stressor, or have them start a meditation practice, or get them taking your supplement regimen, or whatever it is, none of those approaches actually rebuild mitochondria, create bigger and stronger mitochondria and create more mitochondria, mitochondrial biogenesis. They don’t fundamentally repair that problem. At the end of the day, after those treatments by most practitioners, you are still left with small, weak mitochondria, and too few of them.
One more layer I’ll add to this, which is, as we age, it’s been shown in research from the time we’re about 20 to the time we’re about 70, most people lose about 75% of their mitochondrial capacity. Roughly 10% or so, per decade of life. It has been shown that it does not have to be that way. People who do hormetic stress regularly in their lives don’t lose 75% of their mitochondrial capacity. In fact, the 70-year-olds who regularly incorporate exercise and hormetic stressors in their life have similar levels of mitochondrial capacity to young people. We know that factor that to the extent you have weak damaged dysfunctional mitochondria and too few of them, that it is directly linked with the rate of aging and the risk of many, many diseases, and of course, it is linked with fatigue, your energy levels. These are your cellular energy generators. Of course, having really small, weak energy generators and too few of them is going to translate into chronic fatigue.
[clears throat] The big flaw in most practitioners’ approach, especially when it comes to energy levels, but even health more broadly, is they don’t understand the importance of using hormetic stressors to build the mitochondria back up, and to stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis, and to create youthful levels of mitochondrial function. Shameless plug, I will mention Energenesis is an amazing mitochondrial enhancement formula, that there’s many, many ingredients in there that actually do this really, really effectively. In addition to that, hormetic stress incorporated into your life, not just through phytochemicals in Energenesis, though that’s really smart thing to do, but also other hormetic stressors, like the ones I mentioned, are critical to maintaining mitochondrial capacity as you age or rebuilding youthful levels of mitochondrial capacity.
That process cannot be achieved just through very passive and peaceful methods of just putting somebody on a better diet and removing gluten, and removing dairy, and having them eat lentils instead of doughnuts, and having them start a meditation practice, and putting them on different vitamins and mineral supplements. None of those things actually take a person with poor mitochondrial capacity and build those mitochondria up. Building youthful levels of mitochondria is a massive key to aging well, to disease prevention, and to great energy levels. I think it’s hugely overlooked and not well understood.
In fact, I have a textbook actually on the cabinet here behind me, called hormesis and Longevity. It is an amazing medical textbook. It’s quite expensive, but it’s an amazing medical textbook just filled with mind-blowing research on how vital hormesis is to overall disease prevention and lifespan, on longevity.
Not to use the same comparison twice, but I’m going to use it twice, it’s on the same level as optimizing your diet. It is that powerful and it’s so seldom talked about. Hormetic stress is really a huge key to disease prevention, energy, longevity.
How to find the best supplements without going broke
Patrick, “With all the supplements available, how should we select products without going broke?” Another shameless plug. Well, I’ve developed three products now, Energenesis, Energy Essentials, and Ultrabrain. Quite honestly, they have you pretty much covered. There’s actually probably over 60 compounds, maybe 70 compounds between these three different supplements. It’s literally the equivalent of purchasing 50 or 60 different bottles of individual compounds by themselves.
Believe it or not, it’s way cheaper to buy them this way. I encourage you to go on Amazon and see for yourself, price it out how much it would cost you to buy all these compounds individually, as opposed to getting them all in these formulas that I’ve created. You’ll find, by the way, it’s hundreds of dollars more expensive to buy them all individually. In addition, you now have 50 bottles of stuff and 80 different pills you got to fiddle with every day. It’s way more convenient, way cheaper, the dosing is done for you, all the compounds are selected for you.
I’ve spent years of my life, and I’ve spent over 20 years studying nutritional supplements, but I’ve also spent years formulating these and consulting with friends of mine who are experts who helped me formulate them. These really are the best of the best. These are ultra-premium supplements. Other than what I offer in my formulas, there’s honestly very few things that you might even need. There’s potentially some immune support compounds that you might want to play with. I’m actually coming out with an immune product in hopefully six weeks or so. There’s some sleep compounds that you could play with. That’s one of the next supplements I’m working on.
You could play with, for example, chamomile, or Kava kava, or lemon balm, or L-theanine or GABA, things of that nature, valerian root, and melatonin, and stuff like that, glycine, inositol. You could play with some sleep compounds if sleep is an issue for you. If gut health is an issue for you, you may want to delve into the world of gut compounds, again, immune health, probiotics, and omega-3s.
Omega-3s are something I didn’t put in the supplements because really in order to keep them intact and not oxidized, they should be in liquid form and protected, so I can’t really put them into powders, which are all my supplements or powders, so I left the omega-3s out. Depending on your diet and your consumption of omega-3s in your diet, that may be something you want to supplement with. Maybe you want to supplement with probiotics, but honestly, outside of those things, these supplements really have you covered.
Unless you’re struggling with sleep, you don’t need the sleep stuff. Unless you’re struggling with immune stuff, you don’t need the immune stuff, though it might be a good idea when next winter rolls around for a potential second wave. Honestly, again, outside of maybe omega-3s, these three supplements that I’ve created really have most people covered extraordinarily comprehensively. Yes, I would really check those out. Hopefully, that answers your question about potential other compounds and scenarios where you might want to consider other different supplements or additional supplements.
Does looking at the sun hurt your eyes?
Jennifer said, “Is there any risk to the eyes if we go outside early and look up towards the sun?” In the early morning, in the first hour or so of the day, I would even argue two hours, I would essentially say there is no risk to eye health for doing that. I encourage you to do it. I think it’s a very good idea to look towards the sun in the early morning, I think it’s a great idea for setting the circadian rhythm. I actually believe that it’s beneficial for eye health as well. The sun is very redshifted and there’s not a ton of blue and there’s not a ton of UV at those hours. Because of that spectrum at that time of day, it’s a very gentle light that is not highly oxidizing to the eyes. In fact, we just did a consultation for my baby daughter with a vision therapist the other day and she specifically said that for her, for the vision therapist herself and her own eye struggles that she dealt with as a kid growing up, looking into the sun was one of the most beneficial things that she did that helped her just tremendously. I thought that was a very interesting thing for an eye health and vision therapy expert to note. But it’s controversial, right? Probably, not all vision therapists and eye experts would agree with her and probably you could find examples of some that would say, “Oh, the sun is very damaging. Never look to the sun.” I don’t agree with that. I think that’s misguided in the same way that protecting your skin from the sun and never exposing your skin to the sun is extremely misguided.
Why young people end up with chronic fatigue
I have a question from Kyle that posted in the Facebook group said, “I’m trying to help my son who’s only 17 years old and has been unwell with chronic fatigue syndrome for two to three years. Do you have any advice for young people? Why does this happen at his age? He keeps getting low adrenal responses, but we know from listening to you that that’s not the cause, right? Maybe a symptom. Thanks so much. We’re in the UK, so is there a chance to watch the recording if you’re not able to attend this live?”
First of all, as far as low adrenal responses, low cortisol, let me add a nuance to my previous answer which is there is something called Addison’s disease, which is an autoimmune disease that attacks the adrenals and genuinely results in extremely low cortisol levels, and an actual inability of the adrenals to produce enough cortisol. This is, I should be clear, a rare thing. This is not what’s going on in most people with chronic fatigue, but it is possible that your son has this, especially if they keep finding very low levels of cortisol on an adrenal test.
The way that you figure this out is you do what’s called an ACTH stimulation test. ACTH is a hormone produced by the pituitary gland that acts on the adrenals to produce cortisol. When you do this test, basically, you give ACTH to a person, and you see if their adrenals respond normally. Now, what happens in most people, pretty much everybody that is healthy and doesn’t have Addison’s disease, is their adrenals respond by pumping out lots of cortisol. What you see in the context of somebody with Addison’s disease is there’s very little response or no response, and the cortisol levels stay low even as the pituitary gland are producing this hormone ACTH or you’re giving it to the person, that is screaming at the adrenals, “Produce more cortisol.”
What you see in someone with Addison’s disease is high levels of ACTH, low levels of cortisol. What you see in most people with chronic fatigue, by the way, is not high levels of ACTH and not low levels of cortisol, or there is no issue of the cortisol of the adrenals not being able to respond to the ACTH. Anyway, you can do a test like that to figure out is there a genuine problem, is there Addison’s disease. That might be worth ruling out in a case like this.
There’s also an issue of people with chronic fatigue syndrome. There’s various lines of evidence that have suggested that these people are just genetically way less tolerant, way less resilient to oxidative stressors in general across the board. Some kind of major stressor in a susceptible person can really overwhelm the system and send the body into a chronic state of shutdown and defense mode. Mitochondria gets stuck in cell danger response in this defense fatigue mode. That might be a traumatic incident, a divorce, a very stressful event. It might be some severe sickness. There’s many potential triggers for why something like that can occur in some people, but it can happen to even younger people. The good news is the younger you are, the more resilient your body is going to be and the more it’s going to respond to getting things corrected at the lifestyle level.
One other thing I want to mention regarding the cortisol, if it’s not full-blown Addison’s disease but you’re still seeing low morning cortisol levels, by far, the most common reason for that is not ‘adrenal fatigue’, it’s actually just circadian rhythm and sleep problems. If there’s no Addison’s disease, if it’s not that severe and there’s no ACTH problem, in that scenario, what’s most likely going on is there’s a problem at the circadian rhythm and sleep level.
As some first thoughts of what to optimize, I would say optimize circadian rhythm and sleep. If there’s an issue of severe stress management, that might be going through the Energy Blueprint program and the brain module, doing the vagal stimulation, modifying brain function, learning cognitive exercises to release stress, release tension, release anxiety and negativity. There’s also a link by the way with chronic fatigue syndrome and self-critical perfectionism, people who have a lot of negative self-talk. That’s one thing to work on as well.
Again, optimize circadian rhythm and sleep, optimize stress levels and brain function, gut health can be an issue for some if there’s been some kind of major damage to the gut if there’s a history of antibiotic use and there’s a major disturbance to the gut microbiome and the gut mucosa and leaky gut and so on. There’s case stories of young kids with CFS completely resolving their CFS by doing gut healing protocols. That is another thing to consider, and nutrition. If you can optimize those four variables with young people especially, I think it is very common to see a pretty dramatic turnaround in a relatively short period of time.
Wendy said, “I’m an original Energy Blueprint member and got the original Platinum red light you had them make.” Cool, very nice. “Are these just as good as the new ones now available like the Joovv? I have your book but is there anything different you recommend with using this versus the old one versus the new ones? I haven’t been using mine in a long time as I’ve been moving a lot.”
Basically the short answer to this is you don’t have anything to worry about. There were 660 nanometer LEDs in that light. Most of the other red light therapy devices either use 660 or 850 or a combination of both. We can talk about all the differences if somebody wants to ask what are the differences between red and near-infrared, I’ll go into that, but the quick answer is you are perfectly fine using the light you already have and it is absolutely adequate and it is absolutely powerful enough and it’s at the right wavelength to get benefits. There are no dramatic differences between that light and the newer ones available from other companies like Joovv or even the newer ones from Platinum or anyone else.
How to overcome traumatic brain injury
Martha said, “I would love to know your opinion about how to improve my mind after a major traumatic brain injury suffered three years ago. This is very strange, instead of improving with time, it seems that it gets more difficult in all the aspects, memory, understanding things, et cetera. It’s very sad and I do not get into a place where I am not even myself. “
Sorry to hear that, Martha. There’s many things you can do for traumatic brain injuries, and I would say the sooner you start working on this, the better. There’s definitely things you can do at the nutritional level to optimize for brain health. There’s compounds that can stimulate neurological growth factors, things like brain-derived neurotrophic factor, things like nerve growth factor that can make the neurons more neuroplastic and help with regeneration, healing, and repair. Red light therapy is another thing that can do that. Using actual, if you can afford it, a compound like the Vielight Neuro and use that directly on the head to get light delivered directly into the brain. There’s research on that in the context of traumatic brain injuries that’s very positive. There’s supplemental compounds, as I said that that can boost these levels of growth factors. For example, things like- there’s many different ones I could mention here, but many of the compounds that I have in Ultrabrain, for example, lion’s mane, Enzogenol, pine bark extract, Rhodiola, Bacopa Monnieri, NeuroFactor, boosts brain derived neurotrophic factor very powerfully. This is an extract of coffee fruit, not coffee bean but the fruit around the coffee bean.
There’s several other- I would say [unintelligible 01:00:53] sources are very important. Ginkgo Biloba is going to be a great compound. CBD is going to be a great compound for decreasing what’s called glial over-activation and excitotoxicity in the brain, and also highly neuroprotective compounds. Many of these compounds have multiple modes of action. They’re neuroprotective to the neurons in the brain, they decrease neuroinflammation, they improve mitochondrial function in the brain, they act on neurotransmitter levels in the brain, and they increase levels of growth factors in the brain to stimulate neuron repair and healing and neuroplasticity. I would focus heavily on that.
One other thing I would do is saunas. I would prioritize saunas and exercise, extremely powerful for improving brain health. Another great thing is meditation, and another great thing- or yoga and actually moving your body at the same time as you’re doing breathing practices and relaxation practices can be very powerful, and working on the different movement patterns in the vestibular system can be a really, really smart thing and very helpful thing to do for recovering from brain injuries and improving brain function. I know, for example, Carol Garner-Houston, who I’ve had on the podcast and in my energy summit recently specializes in this area, she might be a great practitioner for you to work with, and the last thing I’ll mention is hyperbaric oxygen therapy, which also is incredibly powerful for people with traumatic brain injuries.
You’ve got a good list there. Some of those things are definitely pricey. For example, hyperbaric, for example, the red light therapy devices like 1700 bucks. You have the option of- there are several things I mentioned that are free or very cheap, and there’s other things that that are that gets to be pricey, but I’ll mention Ultrabrain has a whole bunch of these compounds for optimizing brain health. It will end up being somewhere around 85 bucks a month to get it, but you’re getting like 10 different compounds that boost brain health. I mean, in total you’re getting 18 different compounds, but you’re getting something like eight or 10 different compounds that boost growth factors in the brain combat neuroinflammation, can combat glial overactivity, boost levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor, optimize neurotransmitter levels, mitochondrial function in the brain, you’re combating something like this on many different levels and I think using something like Ultrabrain would be a very, very wise idea.
A little more racy and not totally legal, but also something to potentially consider, is experimenting with psilocybin mushrooms which also very, very powerfully boost growth factors in the brain and neural plasticity. Something you should do only with in the context of like guided psychotherapy with professional and not something to experiment with on your own. You can volunteer to be subject in studies that are going on or you can connect with a licensed psychotherapist who’s doing that kind of work. That’s definitely something to look into as well, but regardless, even if you’re not open to that last point, all that stuff I mentioned before is amazing.
How to overcome afternoon energy crashes
Kat said, “What might some possible reasons be for why would have afternoon sleepiness, even with getting plenty of sleep and no sleep apnea? It’ll come on suddenly where it’s almost as if I feel like I took a sleeping pill and just sometimes I’m so sleepy that I can hardly keep my eyes open.” This is a great question. Very, very important. It is important to understand that the right way to conceptualize this is basically that you have an energy fuel tank, you have a battery charge. You have sources in your life of what charge that battery up and you also have sources in your life of what drain that battery. I’ll give you a couple examples of things that drain the battery enormously. Stress. Stress, for example, fighting with your significant other or fighting with your boss at work or something like that. Fighting with your kids, fighting with your parents, fighting with your siblings.
Anything like that can absolutely just drain you massively and just suck the life out of you. Sleep deprivation, if your sleep is not optimal, it can absolutely suck the life out of you very, very quickly. Now, in addition to whatever transient day-to-day experiences we might have that might suck the energy out of us, there is also our baseline battery charge, our baseline capacity. How healthy are you? It is possible to be on a day-to-day basis to have your baseline energy levels be that of a person who’s chronically pretty low energy and in bad health, or it’s possible to have very high energy levels and in really good health.
Now, in somebody who has great overall health, baseline energy levels are very, very high, let’s say a young person who’s very fit and healthy and eats really well and has great body composition and good lifestyle habits and so on, it is extremely unlikely for that person to crash later in the day and to have a period of low energy and to just have a difficulty getting off the couch and just get really tired and want to fall asleep.
On the other hand, if you take somebody who has poor overall health status, poor metabolic health, poor body composition, probably poor nutrition and lifestyle habits, they’re older,and so on, you get the idea, it is way, way more likely and actually pretty common for those kinds of people to crash and to experience periods during the day of being tired and not having much energy. That’s a very simple conceptual framework to understand this. If you’re running out of energy, on a day-to-day basis, it’s because your baseline energy charge is not very strong.
You only have a capacity to deal with a relatively small amount of energy demands on you, things that you do during the day or stresses on you before it overwhelms that system and completely drains the battery, and then the system basically shuts down and is asking for you to recharge it. That’s really what that symptom is. If you’re getting super fatigued and sleepy and tired, your system is going, “We’re out of energy, it’s time to rest so that we can recharge the battery.”
I’m using this battery analogy and this recharging idea, and it sounds maybe weird, but it really is a good way of describing what happens in the body. We do have energy stores and they do get depleted. We do have a capacity to produce energy and a capacity to be resilient in the face of stress and demands on us that can either be higher or lower. Basically, when I read what you’re saying here is you are experiencing your battery being drained because you probably have a very low battery charge to begin with. It’s getting drained much more easily than you’d ideally like and that you probably experienced when you were younger. That’s really what you’re noticing here. There’s two layers of the answer. One is a short term, quick-fix type solution and a warning, and then the other layer is how to really solve the issue. The quick fix part is– Let me do the warning first. The warning is don’t push through it. Don’t push through it by just forcing yourself to go through it and definitely don’t push through it by taking stimulants or caffeine. Don’t force your body to keep going when it’s telling you that it’s out of charge. Listen to your body. If it’s asking you for rest, then rest.
I’ll also say, just in the context of– Here’s one simple solution. You’re feeling really tired. You’re saying, “It’s like I took a sleeping pill.” Your body is shutting down. It’s out of energy. Listen to your body. Take a nap. Take 20 or 30 minutes and take a nap, or if you can’t, lie down all the way and fully go to sleep. Then meditate for 20 minutes, which can also be just as restful as taking a nap. Also, keep in mind, there’s actually research showing that people who take siestas, they take naps in the afternoon, actually have lower risk of some diseases. For example, there’s a study out of Greece that showed a 37% decreased risk of cardiovascular disease in nappers versus non-nappers. This can actually be a health-supporting activity, and keep in mind, I’m saying this as someone who is a non-napper.
There was a study, a really wonderful study by some sleep researchers where they went and looked at hunter-gatherer tribes in a few different places. They went to a couple of tribes in South America and a tribe in Africa. They put trackers on these members of these hunter-gatherer tribes and tracked their wake and sleep cycles. One of the really interesting findings that they came to, there were actually several really fascinating things they came to in the study, one interesting thing is a lot of them rest or nap in the afternoon. This is not a mistake and it’s not actually necessarily because they’re running out of batteries or an indication of poor health, but actually just the fact that these people often live in Equatorial areas and it’s really hot at that part of the day. It’s common for them to seek shade and rest, have a meal and rest for a bit of the time, and then go back out later when it cools off a bit.
There seems to be an effect of just an evolutionary element here of the human species arguably, this might depend on your ancestry a bit, of it being wired into our biology to have a dip in energy levels in the middle of the day in the afternoon. That coincides with the hottest part of the day where ancestry, our hunter-gatherer ancestors often sought out the shade and chose to rest during that period of the day rather than be active. Again, depending on your ancestry, it might very well be wired into your biology to have a significant dip in energy during that part of the day.
Now if you’re crashing and you just can’t stay awake, that’s probably going back to what I was explaining originally where your baseline energy levels are probably just not very strong. Hopefully, that gives you some context to understand it. Again, listen to your body. Take the rest, take a nap, do meditation, do yoga, do some breathing practices, something like that. Do not force yourself to push through it. That’s the short-term solution.
The bigger solution is fix your baseline levels, your baseline energy charge. You do that by basically following the methods in the Energy Blueprint program and optimizing your lifestyle habits and your nutrition for mitochondrial health, for hormonal health, for energy optimization. Probably also, smart use of supplementation, for example, like the supplements that I make.
If you do those things, then you are going to build up the charge in that battery over time such that you’ll find that how long your energy last during the day before it crashes goes way up. In addition, your resilience, your tolerance to deal with stressors and demands on you also goes way up. If you right now can only tolerate three hours of mental or physical work and then you crash, you might find that eventually when you build up that system, now you can tolerate 8 or 10 or 12 hours of mental and physical work before your body crashes, and you might build up that system to where you can basically go all day without any crash. That’s what optimal energy looks like.
How correct supplementation may increase hunger
That’s what we should all be striving for, so that’s the big picture answer to that question. Regina said, “I love your three products. I use one scoop of energy essentials almost every day with a protein shake. Ultrabrain two pills a day around 11 or 12 o’clock. Trying to work my way up to more. I use Energenesis three times a week. I’ve noticed an increase in appetite which was already quite good. Do you think that taking these supplements can increase appetite to be able to metabolize the micronutrients?” Sounds like, do you think that taking these supplements can stimulate appetite significantly?
Yes, I do think that’s reasonable, and probably the most likely mechanisms for what’s going on there, your cells are consuming and burning more energy. You probably also have more energy, and as a result of greater energy levels, you’re probably moving your body more, whether consciously or not. You can move it unconsciously through something called non-exercise activity thermogenesis, which is gentle movement and fidgeting throughout the day, and a lot of that is non-conscious behavior. It can potentially burn hundreds of calories a day.
One of the indications that your cells are more energized is actually the re-emergence of this non-conscious gentle activity, and fidgeting, and desire to get up and move. You’ll feel more of a sense of energy. You’ll feel more of a desire to do things, as opposed to a desire to just stay stuck on the couch or go to sleep. At the same time, you’ll have this non-conscious fidgeting that you’re doing all the time because your body just wants to move and expend energy. That’s a sign of an energetic body.
If that’s occurring, then you may very well be burning hundreds of calories more per day as a result of all those things, and as a result of being in that state, now your body’s appetite goes up and you start wanting to consume more too. The overall net effect of that is to increase something called flux. Which is the combination of energy in, energy out.
If you’ve never heard me explain this concept, basically, it’s the idea that it’s possible for a person to regulate energy in and energy out, at let’s say 1500 calories a day in and out, or 2500 calories a day in and 2500 calories out, or 3500 calories a day in and 3500 calories a day out. The higher that regulation of energy is the higher your flux- and that flux is a really important concept, it’s important for many reasons. It’s important for fat loss reason, it’s something we talked a lot about in the Fat Loss Blueprint course. It’s also something that’s important to energy levels, and something I talk about in Energy Blueprint course because one of the beneficial, and there’s so many different benefits of being in the state, it optimizes levels of hormones, and it allows for greater food intake to help you become nutritionally sufficient, to make sure that your body is actually being flooded with the nutrients that it needs.
The higher your flux is, the greater that you’re level that your body is regulating energy in and out, the more overall nutrients and micronutrients you have coming into your system on a daily basis. Basically everything in your body just works better when you are operating in a higher flux, and that’s really the way you want it to be done. You want to do it this way by building up energy levels, so that you expend more energy and that allowing flux to come up as a result of that.
“Regarding hormesis, sauna, red light therapy, and cold, is it okay to do all of these in one day? If so, the best sequence or is it best to vary throughout the week?” Types of hormesis, sauna, redlight therapy, and cold. Is it okay to do them all in one day? Short answer is yes. Absolutely okay to do them all in one day. It’s even okay to do them all back to back. If you were going to do them back to back, I would probably do cold exposure and then I would do a sauna and then follow with red light. That’s probably the order that I would do it.
The benefit of breath-holding where you do both holding on the out-breath and the in-breath
Getty said, “What’s the benefit of breath-holding where you do both holding on the out-breath and the in-breath?” In a video that I posted on YouTube a couple months ago on a particular breath-holding practice that I recommend, then she said, “I thought from Patrick McKeown’s work that holding on the inhale is not recommended.
Let me answer the breath-holding thing. Let me just talk about breath-holding on the in-breath versus the out-breath and then I’ll add in the next layer of this specific exercise I posted. First of all, Patrick McKeown doesn’t explicitly say like, avoid holding your breath on the in-breath because it’s harmful or something like that. His argument is that it’s superior to do it by holding on the out-breath. The reason that he says this is because holding on the out-breath gives some additional benefits above and beyond what you get from holding on the in-breath.
Specifically, there is a benefit of when you hold on to out-breath, nitric oxide pulls in the nasal cavity and when you release the breath-hold, then that nitric oxide basically gets flushed into your lungs and gets flushed into your bloodstream where it can help optimize blood vessel dilation and circulation. In addition, the other major difference is that holding on the out-breath is, and this is probably the biggest thing, is that you actually get into hypoxia much better this way, which means low blood oxygen levels. When you hold on the in-breath, you don’t effectively lower your blood oxygen levels to a significant degree. When you hold on the out-breath, you can meaningfully lower your blood oxygen levels. He’s arguing that that has unique benefits to the system to get that effect.
Let me say I think he is largely correct in what he’s arguing for. However, I think there’s one important aspect that he’s somewhat neglecting. I say this after a lot of experimentation with this myself. When you do a breath-hold on the out-breath, especially if you do it in the context of moving your body like during a walk, for example, as I like to do breath holds, it is very difficult to hold on the out-breath for a prolonged period of time while you’re physically active. It ends up being a very short thing. It also ends up being, like I would argue, maybe even a little bit dangerous, because you sometimes go a little lightheaded and some people might faint, and maybe smack their head on concrete or something like that, whereas that doesn’t seem to occur so much on breath-holds on the in-breath.
By doing it on the in-breath, you can actually do the breath-hold for a much longer period of time. I think that is a unique benefit in favor of doing it on the in-breath, which is how, for example, skin divers, people who do deep diving on breath-holds or spearfishermen, they practice while holding on the in-breath. I do believe there are enormous benefits of doing that as well. I don’t think the benefits are unique to only doing breath-hold training on the out-breath. Again, I do think Patrick McKeown is correct thats it’s more effective to induce hypoxia when you do the breath-hold on the out-breath and that probably has some unique benefits. My overall take is I think he’s excessively harsh on doing breath-hold practices while holding a full in-breath. I think they are extremely beneficial to do and a really smart idea for people to practice. I think they’re easier and less intimidating and a way for people to sort of ease into breath-hold stuff that isn’t quite as uncomfortable of a feeling as holding on and out-breath is.
Overall, I think there’s enormous benefits to doing even breath holds on an in-breath and I think if you’re going to design an overall breath-holding regimen, then doing- you can alternate back and forth, you can do both styles of breath flow training, both on the in-breath and the out-breath. You can only do a combined practice like I demonstrated in that video, where you hold first on the out-breath as long as you can, and then after you’re done with that immediately inhale and then hold your breath again for as long as you can. I think it’s sort of like exercise.
It’s like saying, should you do running, or should you lift weights? Then somebody arguing, “Hey, only running is the kind of exercise that has benefits,” and somebody’s arguing, “Only lifting weights is the kind that has benefits because this and this,” and I think at the end of the day, both are hormetic stressors that will have benefits and they probably have some unique benefits to each different kind, and unique pros and cons, and I say they’re all good. Do them all.
For everybody that I did not get to your question, first of all, I’m sorry. Again, it would probably take me probably two hours to get through all the remaining questions and there would be more that come in. I hope you guys enjoyed this. I hope you found it helpful. If you need anything from us if you have any questions about our programs if you have any questions about the supplement line of Energenesis, Ultrabrain, Energy Essentials, please reach out to us. You can reach us at email@example.com if you want to reach me, or you can reach, and I may not- there’s 200 emails that go there every day and I generally have my customer support team take care of most of it. They may handle most of it but if there’s only a question that I can answer, then it gets forwarded to me.
Anyway, I hope you guys enjoyed this. I hope you found it beneficial and enjoy the rest of your evening and I’ll talk to you again soon.
Testing for the root cause of fatigue (05:22)
How to overcome long-term chronic viral infections (22:02)
How to exercise with fibromyalgia (25:35)
How to prime your circadian rhythm (30:04)
What most practitioners of healthy living are not paying enough attention to (32:50)
How to find the best supplements without going broke (44:30)
Does looking at the sun hurt your eyes? (48:28)
Why young people end up with chronic fatigue (50:15)
How to overcome traumatic brain injury (57:19)
How to overcome afternoon energy crashes (1:03:13)
How correct supplementation may increase hunger (1:14:22)
The benefit of breath-holding where you do both holding on the out-breath and the in-breath (1:19:15)