The Ultimate List Of All Natural Ways To Boost Energy

head_shot_ari
Author: Ari Whitten
15_speakers_evan_hirsch.png
Medical Reviewer: Evan Hirsch, MD
Ultimate List of Energy Boosters

Overview

Aristotle said, “The energy of the mind is the essence of life.” This could be extended to include the energy of the body too. Even in traditional Chinese medicine, it is believed that ‘Ch’i’ is the vital force of any living entity. Without energy, you have a chronic lack of motivation and vitality, you feel lethargic, experience tiredness, and suffer from apathy. Fatigue and sleep problems have both become a modern epidemic.

Statistics show that fatigue may be affecting over 50% of the population, and 1 in 3 adults over 65 have severe low energy.

Today, individuals sleep 20% less than 100 years ago, over 30% of the population suffers from insomnia, 40% of middle-aged people report short sleep duration, and 50-70 million adults in the United States have a sleep disorder.

Fortunately, there are many ways that you can increase your natural energy and live a life full of energy and vitality, even as you age.

In this Ultimate List of Natural Ways to Boost Energy, we will discuss some of the most important lifestyle changes, natural energy-boosting foods, and vitamin and mineral supplements that will help you get your energy back!

Lifestyle Changes to Get Your Energy Back

Circadian rhythm/sleep

Optimizing your body’s circadian rhythm and sleep is the single most important way to improve your energy. Your circadian rhythm is basically your body’s sleep/wake cycle. Getting enough sleep is critical for recharging the body’s energy stores and for the process of autophagy (your body’s way of removing damaged cells and replacing them with new ones) to occur. This can be achieved by:

  • Having a simple, regular, pre-bed ritual, which includes something relaxing
  • Avoiding anything stressful in the few hours before bed, including violent movies, the news, and exercise
  • Meditating, reading and/or enjoying a warm bath before sleep
  • Sleeping in a completely dark and cool room. Numerous studies have found that exposure to even regular room light during normal hours of sleep, reduces melatonin production by 50% thus negatively impacting your sleep and energy levels
  • Exposing yourself to plenty of sunlight during the day, ideally within 30 minutes of waking up
  • Using aromatherapy (essential oils) while sleeping
  • Avoiding food 3-4 hours before bed
  • Avoiding/minimizing exposure to E.M.F.’s. One 2008 study showed that people exposed to radiation from their mobile phones for three hours before bedtime had more trouble falling asleep and reaching deep sleep.
  • Keep devices off and out of your bedroom at night.

Nutrition

Michael Pollan said it best when he said, “Eat Real Food. Not too much. Mostly Plants.” What we eat and how much we eat has a huge impact on our energy levels. This occurs mostly through food’s effects on the hormone Orexin, which regulates wakefulness, mood, and energy levels. Some foods suppress Orexin and should be avoided:

  • Food containing large amounts of carbs and/or fat
  • Processed and refined foods (think anything that typically comes in a box, bag or can), which are often full of fat and sugar and lacking in fiber, vitamins, minerals, and protein that properly fuel our cells. These foods cause a spike and crash in blood sugar.
  • Eating protein-containing food has the opposite effect on Orexin; therefore, eating adequate amounts of protein works as a natural energy booster.

Lactate containing foods also increase levels of Orexin and include fermented foods such as Sauerkraut, Kimchi, Kombucha, and Sourdough Bread.

Hydration

Drinking water and eating water-rich fruits and vegetables can be extremely helpful with fatigue, especially if you are dehydrated.

  • Studies have shown that even mild dehydration can cause moodiness, problems concentrating, headaches, and fatigue. In one study, women who had not adequately hydrated after exercise reported difficulty getting work done, poorer mood, headaches, and fatigue.
  • Most people don’t know this, but improperly filtered tap water is a major source of disease-causing and fatigue-inducing toxins. So make sure that you filter your water with reverse osmosis filters, distillers, gravity-fed filters, or under the counter water filters (from reputed companies such as Pure Effects Filters).
  • Remineralizing purified water with a pinch of salt or a mineral supplement like Concentrace is also a good idea.

Psychology/neuroscience/stress

Few things cause tiredness and fatigue faster than intense psychological or emotional stress. This is due to the connection between the brain, gut, immune system, endocrine system, and your mitochondria (the cellular energy generators of your body). Everyone experiences some stress, but it is when it is chronic that it becomes problematic. To manage stress:

  • Practice daily recharge rituals such as mindfulness, meditation, prayer, deep breathing, and laughter. Meditation is, by far, one of the most powerful medicines available to humans. Meditation can decrease stress, decrease anxiety, decrease feelings of loneliness, improves your ability to regulate mood and emotions decrease depression and make you happier, decrease pain, decrease inflammation, increase your sense of connection to others ,improve cognitive performance and literally re-shapes your brain in beneficial ways.
  • Have positive social relationships, sing, dance, enjoy music and other hobbies
  • Move every day – practice yoga, exercise, massage, tai chi, and acupuncture.
  • Spend time in nature
  • Identify which of these work for you personally and start building a daily practice.

*[Though there are various methods of meditation zivaONLINE is highly recommended. For more information on this, please see the podcast with Emily Flecther (founder of zivaONLINE) 

Light

Sun/vitamin D/red and near-infrared – mal-illumination (or inadequate light exposure) is as bad for our energy levels as malnutrition. Light also plays a critical role in our Circadian Rhythm, immune function, hormone systems, and mitochondrial health. The sun is our ancestral light source, rich in the full spectrum of bioactive light, which includes blue light, U.V. light, and near and far Infra-Red light. Each of these wavelengths of light has a special function in our body, so regular, daily exposure to sunlight is important in maintaining optimal energy levels.

  • Blue light, as previously discussed, is important for regulating Circadian Rhythm.
  • U.V. light is important in the production of Vitamin D, which is a pro-hormone responsible for numerous functions in the body, including energy production. Studies show that low Vitamin D levels are associated with fatigue and even depression.
  • Red light or Far Infra-Red light is critical in energy production.

Light exposure directly increases the production of Orexin and also has an effect on the neurotransmitters Serotonin, Dopamine, and GABA, which make you feel good and help you relax. The darker your skin color, the longer you should expose yourself to sunlight. This is especially important first thing in the morning and at midday. When you cannot get sunlight in the winter, supplementation with a light therapy device may be necessary. Supplementation with Vitamin D in pill form is inadequate and not recommended.

Gut health

Gut health is integral to overall health and can play a vital role in your energy. Numerous studies have linked gut health with chronic fatigue syndrome, and normalization of leaky gut has improved its symptoms and negative side effects dramatically. 26 27

  • Supplementing with certain bacteria can help with gut health. Dr. Sarah Myhill states that “a healthy gut needs between 7 and 90 million E-coli microbes” in order to produce sufficient folic acid, Vitamin K2, dopamine precursors, and tryptophan, necessary for energy production and regulation of mood.
  • Antibiotics upset the natural balance of gut flora, which results in poor gut health and low levels of energy.
  • If you have G.I. symptoms (such as gas, bloating, constipation, eczema, depression, etc.) and chronic fatigue, you may want to get tested.

Whether you get a diagnosis or not, it might still be useful to cleanse your gut seasonally. This can be done by:

Toxicants (toxins) and detoxification

Consider removing toxins from your body and your environment. Toxins directly contribute to fatigue by exhausting the body’s efforts to fight off the toxic invaders. Toxins in your environment include:

  • fluoride in toothpaste and tap water 28
  • B.P.A. and phthalates in plastic
  • heavy metals in farmed fish, food, canned goods, and cookware,arsenic in rice, commercially raised chicken and eggs
  • thallium in car exhaust and gasoline
  • mercury in flu shots, abrasive cleaners and dental fillings  29
  • food coloring, perfume, over-the-counter drugs, etc.

Virtually all of these toxins are linked to mitochondrial dysfunction, cancer, and numerous other diseases. In addition to removing toxins, you need to include foods that boost detoxification and support the liver in doing its job. 30

This includes:

  • phytonutrient-rich plant foods, including greens and green juices, berries, cruciferous vegetables, lemons and lemon juice, beets, sprouts, a variety of herbs (milk thistle, rosemary, turmeric), and liver
  • supplements such as glutathione, N-Acetyl Cysteine, chlorella, reishi and cordyceps mushrooms and garlic 31 32 33
  • sweating through exercise, hot yoga and sauna is also a good way to eliminate toxins, especially as skin is one of our largest organs
  • losing body fat along with practicing the above can be very useful, as toxins are often stored in fatty tissue

Hormesis

The process by which a mild or acute stressor promotes adaptations that increase the health, resilience, and vitality of an organism. Hormetic stressors build up your cellular engine by building bigger and more powerful mitochondria, which results in increased energy levels! The following act as hormetic stressors on the body:

Exercise

The movement has a profound effect on neurotransmitters that regulate wakefulness. When you sit around a lot during the day, your body thinks it is time to rest and will start preparing for sleep. Sitting and inactivity can lead to a decrease in the number and health of mitochondria, thus slowing down metabolism over time.  34 35

Exercise signals your body to wake up. Even small, simple actions such as taking short movement breaks and walking more will increase your N.E.A.T. (Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis) and help fight the afternoon slump.

For well-trained individuals, including High-Intensity Interval Training (H.I.I.T.), especially in a fasted state, can really improve energy levels.

  • intermittent fasting
  • nutrient cycling
  • cold and heat exposure

Sauna

Regular sauna use has been found to be extremely beneficial for brain health. Studies show that using an infrared sauna can result in improved depression scores, often exceeding the antidepressant effects of SSRI antidepressant drugs like Prozac.

In addition, using both cold and heat exposure can maximize benefits. Ideally, have a cold shower before exercise and then use a sauna after exercise. This will amplify your natural energy!

  • hypoxia and oxygen bankruptcy
  • dietary phytonutrients

Caffeine

Use caffeine and stimulants with CAUTION.

It has been scientifically proven that stimulants such as a cup of coffee can have numerous health and disease prevention benefits. However, chronic use is typically counterproductive.

Why?

Caffeine works to increase energy by blocking the neurotransmitter Adenosine, which normally calms the brain and relaxes you, thus causing an energizing effect. But when you drink caffeine every day, the brain feels overstimulated and produces negative feedback adaptations to counter this and calm you back down.

Over time, this lowers your baseline level of mood, performance, and energy. If you are currently addicted to multiple cups of coffee, start weaning yourself off slowly and gradually (so as to avoid withdrawal symptoms). Despite initially feeling a little tired, this will be worth your efforts and is the first step in overcoming stress and anxiety. After that, if you want to achieve a “pick-me-up” boost from caffeine without habituation, use it judiciously about twice a week in the morning or pre-workout.

Energy-Boosting Foods

Healthy Food

Eat foods rich in phytonutrients

Phytonutrients have a powerful effect on our energy by boosting our mitochondrial function (our cellular energy generators) and reducing chronic inflammation. Phytonutrients include polyphenols like:

  • resveratrol in grapes
  • curcumin in turmeric
  • E.C.G.C. in green tea
  • epicatechins in cacao
  • sulforaphane in broccoli
  • ellagic acid in pomegranates
  • carotenoids in tomatoes
  • anthocyanins in berries such as blueberries and bilberries and also black currants and purple sweet potatoes

These substances are potent Nrf2 activators. Nrf2 is a key regulator of the cellular antioxidant response. It is responsible for cellular detoxification, repair of damaged proteins, and normalizing cell energy. By reducing cellular inflammation, phytonutrients can increase energy. 36

Eating these foods has a profound effect, not just on energy, but also on general health and well-being. Add color to your plate and eat these foods in abundance. WebMD states that there are more than 25,000 phytonutrients found in plant foods.

Vitamins and Supplements that Boost Energy

Though eating a healthy, phytonutrient-rich diet, exercising regularly, and getting enough sleep are vitally important for improving energy, but it is often difficult to do while balancing the demands of life. This is where supplements can play an important role.

A study published in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition showed that it’s really hard to get all the essential vitamins and minerals you need from food alone. This study analyzed the diets of 70 athletes, and every single one was deficient in at least three nutrients. Some diets were missing up to fifteen nutrients!  37  The most common vitamins and minerals lacking in the modern diet are the B vitamins, calcium, potassium, iron, zinc, magnesium, and selenium.

B Vitamins

B vitamins – are important in maintaining cell health and keeping you energized. Most people can get their daily requirements from eating a variety of healthy food. However, certain groups, such as vegetarians and vegans, people with G.I. disorders and older adults, may be prone to deficiencies. If you have a deficiency, then supplementation can help increase energy levels. A blood test can help identify which particular B vitamin you are deficient in.

Magnesium

An essential mineral and is considered the second most common deficiency affecting about 70% of the American population. The best food sources are leafy greens, nuts, seeds, and cacao. Supplementing with magnesium can have a calming effect on the body and may improve sleep quality – and better sleep means more energy throughout the day. Magnesium can be taken in pill form or rubbed on the body in the form of an oil. Alternatively, you can relax at the end of the day by soaking in a magnesium-rich Epsom salts bath.

Ashwagandha

One of the most important adaptogenic herbs used in traditional Indian ayurvedic medicine. It has been found to increase energy by increasing the body’s resilience to physical and mental stress [41]. It has also been shown to improve thyroid function and improve physical performance in both sedentary people and athletes.38 Ashwagandha root extract is the preferred form of supplementation.

Panax Ginseng

A well-known Chinese traditional medicine that has gained recognition in the West during the last decade. It is popularly known to increase libido and appears to be effective for mood, immunity, and cognition. In addition, Panax ginseng modulates and reduces blood glucose, which helps maintain levels of Orexin and thus promotes wakefulness.39 Panax ginseng has been shown to work synergistically with Gingko Biloba (another Chinese, antioxidant-rich herb used to enhance brain health and treat a variety of conditions).

Rhodiola Rosea

Another Adaptogen used in traditional Chinese medicine. Studies have shown that it very reliably reduces symptoms of fatigue and helps with depression, which is also commonly linked to fatigue.  40 41 By increasing dopamine signaling and thereby activating Orexin, it increases energy and wakefulness. In addition, studies have shown that it improves cognitive and physical performance and promotes longevity.

Alpha-Lipoic Acid (ideally R-ALA)

A mitochondrial compound involved in energy metabolism. It is one of the most potent antioxidants produced naturally by the body but also found in a variety of foods and in supplement form. It reduces inflammation and thereby directly improves energy levels. A.L.A. can also reduce blood glucose levels when taken with a meal and thus maintain levels of the hormone Orexin, which promotes wakefulness.42 43

Astaxanthin

A red pigment found in krill and other seafood. It is known to protect the mitochondria against oxygen radicals, conserve their antioxidant capacity, and enhance their energy production efficiency. Astaxanthin also modulates blood glucose and so increases levels of Orexin and hence energy levels. One study showed that astaxanthin might even have anti-aging properties [48]. As astaxanthin is fat-soluble, it is best taken with a meal containing fats and should be taken either a few hours before or a few hours after exercise.

Creatine

Athletes, bodybuilders, and military personnel use dietary creatine as an ergogenic aid to boost physical performance in sports involving short bursts of high-intensity muscle activity. Creatine is thought to improve strength, increase lean muscle mass, and help the muscles recover more quickly during exercise. Creatine is most effective when taken immediately after exercise with a meal containing carbohydrates.

L- Carnitine

A naturally occurring amino acid derivative, which acts as a “ferry” that shuttles fatty acids from the blood into the mitochondria, where they can be used as energy. 44 L-carnitine has also been shown to reduce the accumulation of metabolic wastes during exercise and improve insulin sensitivity and glucose control (thus directly increasing Orexin and energy levels). Carnitine is found primarily in meats and dairy, so vegans and vegetarians are likely to need higher doses. 45

Coenzyme Q10 (or Ubiquinol)

A naturally occurring in all cells of the body, although the heart, kidneys, and liver have the highest levels. Cells use CoQ10 to make energy and protect themselves from oxidative damage .  46

As people with some diseases have reduced levels of this substance, researchers have been interested in finding out whether CoQ10 supplements might have health benefits. CoQ10 enhances blood flow (through nitric oxide preservation), so it may improve cardiovascular health and have a small benefit in prolonged exercise where fatigue degrades performance.

D-Ribose

A type of simple, five-carbon sugar that our bodies make. It is an essential component of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which supplies energy to our cells. Normal, healthy tissue can make all the ribose it needs, but ATP production is hindered by inadequate ribose when we are stressed by overexertion. ATP production can drop by as much as 20% after a strenuous workout and may take up to 72 hours to fully recover. Studies have also shown that D-ribose significantly reduced clinical symptoms in patients suffering from fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome. 47 Ribose cannot be found in food, so supplementing with it can have dramatic results under the right conditions.

When to See a Doctor or Nutritionist

Certain medical conditions can also cause fatigue, and you should see your doctor if you suspect that you have any of the following:

  • Hypothyroid (Slow/Sluggish Thyroid)
  • Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) and other infections
  • Sleep disorders.
  • Diabetes
  • Heart Disease

Bottom line

There are many things you can do to maintain your energy, including consuming a phytonutrient-rich diet, optimizing your circadian rhythm, hydrating optimally, dealing with stress, taking care of your gut health, decreasing your toxic load and exercising regularly. In addition, taking adaptogens, like Rhodiola rosea, ashwagandha, and Panax ginseng are also very effective as agents that support the body’s ability to accommodate varying physical and emotional stresses.

Resources

  1. The Better Sleep Guide. Insomnia Statistics
  2. CDC. Insufficient sleep is a public health concern
  3. American Sleep Association. Sleep Statistics
  4. CDC. Insufficient sleep is a public health concern
  5. Gooley JJ, et al. “Exposure to room light before bedtime suppresses melatonin onset and shortens melatonin duration in humans.” J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Mar;96(3):E463-72. doi: 10.1210/jc.2010-2098.
  6. Arnetz, B. et al “Effects from 884 MHz mobile phone radiofrequency on brain electrophysiology, sleep, cognition, and well-being.” http://www.ursi.org/proceedings/procGA08/papers/K02cp2.pdf 
  7. Sarah C.P. Williams. “Mild Dehydration Triggers Moodiness & Fatigue in Women.” Live Science, May 30, 2013.
  8. Kozisek, F. Health Risks From Drinking Demineralised Water.
  9. Speca, Michael PsyD et al “A Randomized, Wait-List Controlled Clinical Trial: The Effect of a Mindfulness Meditation-Based Stress Reduction Program on Mood and Symptoms of Stress in Cancer Outpatients.” Journal of Biobehavioural Medicine, Sept/Oct 2000.
  10. Arias J.A et al. “Systematic Review of the Efficacy of Meditation Techniques as Treatments for Medical Illness.” The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. October 2006.
  11. Fredrickson, B. L., Cohn, M. A., Coffey, K. A., Pek, J., & Finkel, S. M. (2008). Open hearts build lives: Positive emotions, induced through loving-kindness meditation, build consequential personal resources. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95(5), 1045-1062.
  12. Jazaieri, H. et al. (2013). A randomized controlled trial of compassion cultivation training: Effects on mindfulness, affect, and emotion regulation. Motivation and Emotion, 38, 23-35.
  13. Ramel1, W., Goldin, P.R., Carmona, P.E. et al. Cognitive Therapy and Research (2004)
  14. Davidson, Richard J. PhD et al “Alterations in Brain and Immune Function Produced by Mindfulness Meditation.” Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine: July 2003.
  15. Fredrickson, B. L., Cohn, M. A., Coffey, K. A., Pek, J., & Finkel, S. M. (2008). Open hearts build lives: Positive emotions, induced through loving-kindness meditation, build consequential personal resources. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95(5), 1045-1062.
  16. Zeidan, Fadel et al. “Brain mechanisms supporting the modulation of pain by mindfulness meditation.” The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience vol. 31,14 (2011)
  17. Rosenkranz, M et al  “A comparison of mindfulness-based stress reduction and an active control in modulation of neurogenic inflammation.” Science Direct Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. January 2013.
  18. Fredrickson, B. L., Cohn, M. A., Coffey, K. A., Pek, J., & Finkel, S. M. (2008). Open hearts build lives: Positive emotions, induced through loving-kindness meditation, build consequential personal resources. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95(5)
  19. Jha, A.P., Krompinger, J. & Baime, M.J. “Mindfulness training modifies subsystems of attention.” Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience (2007) 7: 109.
  20. Levy, D. et al “a study of the effects of meditation on multitasking performance” ACM DL, 2011
  21. Luders, E et al. “The underlying anatomical correlates of long-term meditation: Larger hippocampal and frontal volumes of gray matter.” NeuroImage. April 2009
  22. Davidson, Richard J. PhD et al. “Alterations in Brain and Immune Function Produced by Mindfulness Meditation.” Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine: July 2003
  23. Lazar, Sara W et al. “Meditation experience is associated with increased cortical thickness.” Neuroreport vol. 16,17 (2005)
  24. Högberg, G., at al. “Depressed adolescents in a case-series were low in vitamin D and depression was ameliorated by vitamin D supplementation.” Acta Paediatr. 2012 Jul;101(7):779-83. doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2012.02655.x.
  25. Ashtari, F., et al. “The relation between Vitamin D status with fatigue and depressive symptoms of multiple sclerosis.” J Res Med Sci. 2013 Mar;18(3):193-7.
  26. Lakhan, SE. et al. “Gut inflammation in chronic fatigue syndrome.” Nutr Metab (Lond). 2010 Oct 12;7:79. doi: 10.1186/1743-7075-7-79.
  27. Maes M, Leunis JC, et al. “Normalization of leaky gut in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is accompanied by a clinical improvement: effects of age, duration of illness and the translocation of LPS from gram-negative bacteria.” Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2008 Dec;29(6):902-10. 
  28. Suzuki, M., Bandoski, C. and J. D. Bartlett. Fluoride induces oxidative damage and SIRT1/autophagy through ROS-mediated JNK signaling. Free Radical and Biological Medicine, 89: 369-378. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4684823/ 
  29. Lindh, U. (2002). Removal of dental amalgam and other metal alloys supported by antioxidant therapy alleviates symptoms and improves quality of life in patients with amalgam-Associated ill health. Neuroendocrinology Letters, 23(5/6):459-482.
  30. Grant, D. M. (1991). Detoxification pathways in the liver. Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease, 14(4): 421-30.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1749210 
  31. Treat Autism. Detoxification and glutathione.http://treatautism.ca/detoxification/
  32. Queiroz, M. L. et. al. (2003). Protective effects of Chlorella vulgaris in lead-exposed mice infected with Listeria monocytogenes. International Immunopharmacology, 3(6):889-900.
  33. Hardeep, S. (2014). Pharmacological and therapeutic potential of cordyceps with special reference to cordycepsin. 3 Biotech, 4(1): 1-12.
  34. Timmons JA, et al. “Expression profiling following local muscle inactivity in humans provides new perspective on diabetes-related genes.” Genomics. 2006 Jan;87(1):165-72.
  35. Ringholm S, et al. “Bed rest reduces metabolic protein content and abolishes exercise-induced mRNA responses in human skeletal muscle.” Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Oct;301(4):E649-58. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00230.2011.
  36. Stefanson, A., Bakovic, M. “Dietary Regulation of Keap1/NRF2/ARE Pathway: Focus on Plant-Derived Compounds and Trace Minerals.” Nutrients 2014, 6, 3777-3801; doi: 10.3390/nu6093777
  37. Misner, B. “Food Alone May Not Provide Sufficient Micronutrients for Preventing Deficiency.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, volume 3, Article number: 51 (2006)
  38. Sharma, AK. et al. “Efficacy and Safety of Ashwagandha Root Extract in Subclinical Hypothyroid Patients: A Double-Blind, Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.” J Altern Complement Med. 2018 Mar;24(3):243-248. doi: 10.1089/acm.2017.0183.
  39. Mancuso C, Santangelo R. “Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius: From pharmacology to toxicology.” Food Chem Toxicol. 2017 Sep;107(Pt A):362-372. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2017.07.019.
  40. Hung, SK. et al. “The effectiveness and efficacy of Rhodiola rosea L.: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials.”  Phytomedicine. 2011 Feb 15;18(4):235-44. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2010.08.014.
  41. Goodwin, Guy M. “Depression and associated physical diseases and symptoms.” Dialogues in clinical neuroscience vol. 8,2 (2006): 259-65.
  42. Rochette, L. et al. “Alpha-lipoic acid: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic potential in diabetes.” Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2015 Dec;93(12):1021-7. doi: 10.1139/cjpp-2014-0353.
  43. Rochette, L. et al. “Direct and indirect antioxidant properties of α-lipoic acid and therapeutic potential.” Mol Nutr Food Res. 2013 Jan;57(1):114-25. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201200608.
  44. WebMD. L Carnitine
  45. Pekala, J. et al. “L-carnitine–metabolic functions and meaning in humans life.” Curr Drug Metab. 2011 Sep;12(7):667-78.
  46. Saini, Rajiv. “Coenzyme Q10: The essential nutrient.” Journal of pharmacy & bioallied sciences vol. 3,3 (2011): 466-7. doi:10.4103/0975-7406.84471
  47. Teitelbaum, JE. et al. “The use of D-ribose in chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia: a pilot study.” J Altern Complement Med. 2006 Nov;12(9):857-62.

Like this article?

Share on facebook
Share on Facebook
Share on twitter
Share on Twitter
Share on linkedin
Share on Linkdin
Share on pinterest
Share on Pinterest
Medically Reviewed ByEvan Hirsch, MD

Leave a comment