ULTRABRAIN​

Premium Nutraceutical For Brain Health Optimization - mood support, cognitive performance, focus, drive, motivation, decreased anxiety, clarity, and long-term brain health

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FREE shipping within U.S. | We also ship internationally!

(For international orders: All shipments are shipped Duties, Customs, & Taxes unpaid. Buyer is responsible for delivery fees.) 

What You Can Expect From ULTRABRAIN:

  • Improved mood (combat depressed mood and increase joy)
  • Improved focus and cognitive performance
  • Improved brain energy levels
  • Decreased brain fog (improved clarity)
  • Decreased anxiety
  • Stimulant-free brain boosting action
  • Long-term decreased risk of neurodegenerative diseases

Do You Have Any Or All Of These Symptoms?

Brain-related fatigue – feeling fatigued, exhausted, or sleepy after doing something mentally demanding.

Chronic low energy – waking up feeling groggy, feeling tired throughout the day, relying on caffeine or stimulants to keep you alert.

Brain fog – a type of cognitive dysfunction that includes memory problems, lack of ability to concentrate, and lack of mental clarity.

Anxiety or depression – persistent feelings of sadness, emptiness, guilt, hopelessness, worry, or pessimism.

Loss of resiliency – inability to handle and recover from stress.

Sleep problems – racing thoughts at bedtime or inability to fall asleep quickly, waking up in the night – sometimes repeatedly, insomnia.

Whether you suffer from one or all of these issues, you must understand this critical truth: These symptoms are NOT a normal thing, and they’re NOT just a normal part of aging.

Here's The Reality

These symptoms are present because you actually have damaged, inflamed, or dysfunctional neurons in your brain. more specifically, you have:

  • Leaky blood-brain barrier – a shockingly common issue where the protective wall between your brain and bloodstream breaks down. when it becomes leaky, things get into the brain that shouldn’t be there.
  • Mitochondrial dysfunction / shutdown – mitochondria are your cellular energy generators and danger sensors. but, mitochondria cannot be in both energy mode and cell defense mode. when your mitochondria are weak, they are constantly trying to ‘sense danger’ and can’t produce energy.
  • Neuro inflammation – cells in your brain called microglia, which sort of function as your brain’s immune system, are activated too frequently and become stuck in the ‘on’ position. as a result, they produce inflammatory compounds and oxidative damage.

Let's Fix The Damaged Neurons In Your Brain!

You can seal your blood-brain barrier, heal your mitochondria, and reduce the inflammation in your brain. 

You can reverse your brain-related fatigue, brain fog, anxiety and depression, loss of resilience, and sleep issues. 

To do this, you must nourish your imbalanced brain with a wide range of nutrients – nutrients that are scientifically proven to fix your neurons…

Reverse cellular dysfunction…

Reduce inflammation…

Rewire your brain out of fatigue, stress, and depression mode… 

And into high energy, high performance mode…

INTRODUCING ULTRABRAIN

We created a premium, next generation brain supplement that’s packed with the nutrition your brain needs to heal and function at its full power.

Ultrabrain Is A Full-Spectrum Nootropic That:

  • Restores your blood brain barrierkeeping toxins OUT of your brain and letting IN key nutrients, like glucose and amino acids.
  • Increases mitochondrial function, ensuring they remain out of the cell danger response and stay in energy production mode.
  • Reduces inflammation and oxidative damage, helping your neurons fire more quickly and promoting proper cell function and communication.
  • Optimizes your entire brain, ensuring each part is working at maximum capacity. 
  • Is safe and effective for everybody (and every brain), no matter the age or activity level. 
  • Contains zero stimulants, junk, or fillers and uses only high quality, carefully sourced ingredients.

COMPLETE TRANSPARENCY ON THE ULTRABRAIN LABEL

Why These Specific Nutrients?

We spent years combing through mountains of scientific studies, and these are the ingredients proven by research to provide broad spectrum brain healing and support.

The result is a very carefully curated formulation that meets these unparalleled standards:

  • Absolutely zero pseudo-science, fads, or false marketing. Pure science in every serving.
  • Each ingredient is in its most potent, bioavailable form. Really nothing else can outperform these brain boosting compounds.
  • Effective dosages in each and every serving. 10 capsules a day is everything you need to help reverse cellular dysfunction and supercharge your mental capacity.

THE PERFECT FORMULATION​

18 premium, carefully sourced ingredients in effective dosages.

Rhodiola Rosea

  • Stabilizes mood
  • Reduces anxiety and depression
  • Improves cognitive performance
  • Reduces feelings of exhaustion, irritability, and burnout
  • Increases resilience (resistance to stress)
  • Functions as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory
  • Fast-acting

In first-year medical students, taking rhodiola rosea for 3 weeks before exams improved mental performance by 50% and reduced mental fatigue by 42%.[1]

A large study of over 100 adults with chronic work- and life-related stress found that 400 mg/d of rhodiola rosea significantly reduced feelings of exhaustion, irritability, and anxiety in as little as three days![2]

In adults with chronic fatigue syndrome, 400 mg per day of rhodiola improved every aspect of fatigue after just 1 week, with further improvements seen after 8 weeks. [3]

Ultimately, 83% of the participants reported “very much” or “much” improved conditions, with every aspect of fatigue, stress, and global impairment being cut in half.

Lion's Mane Powder

  • Reduces anxiety and depression
  • Helps improve memory, concentration, and overall cognitive function
  • Promotes nerve growth and regeneration in the brain
  • Reduces inflammation
  • Stabilizes mood
  • Restores key neurotransmitters

Research has found that 1,500 mg per day for 8 weeks reduced feelings of anxiety by 27% and feelings of depression by 39%. [4]

Alpha-GPC

  • Protects neurons in the brain and supports neurotransmission 
  • Increases dopamine and serotonin signaling in the brain
  • Decreases risk of vascular dementia
  • More effective than Alzheimer drug (Aricept) at improving cognition

The choline supplied by alpha-GPC plays a critical role in neuronal plasticity, membrane stability, signaling events, and neurotransmission. [5] Choline is, without a doubt, neuroprotective, and a low brain concentration is one of the primary causes of vascular dementia (loss of memory and ability to think). [6],[7]

As of 2007, alpha-GPC has been investigated in 14 clinical trials enrolling individuals with neurodegenerative disorders, vascular dementia, or stroke, and the results have been very positive. For example, compared to drug therapy for Alzheimer’s disease (the cholinesterase inhibitor called donepezil or Aricept), alpha-GPC was more effective at improving cognition over 6 months. [8]

CDP-choline

  • Promotes health of cell membranes
  • Improves memory and overall brain cognition
  • Improves motor function
  • Increases focus and reduces impulsive behavior
  • Improves neuroplasticity (helps the brain adapt to new situations)

Unlike alpha-GPC, however, CDP-choline is the direct precursor for the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, one of the most abundant and important structural components of cell membranes. [9]

Research in humans has suggested that taking CDP-choline increases phosphatidylcholine synthesis within the brain.[10] Indeed, 6 weeks of daily supplementation with 500 mg of CDP-choline increases brain phospholipid concentrations.

A Cochrane Systematic Review of 14 double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of older adults with cognitive deficits like dementia reported that CDP-choline was able to improve memory, correct abnormal behaviors, and increase the global impression that physicians have towards the participants. [11]

Bacopa

  • Enhances short-term and long-term memory
  • Enhances learning, visual processing, cognitive performance
  • Improves mood and reduces depression and anxiety
  • Reduces oxidative stress
  • Neuroprotective
  • Reduces β-amyloid deposits
  • Enhances communication between neurons
  • Increases blood flow

In healthy elderly adults (average 73 years), 300 mg/d of bacopa (50% bacosides) for 12 weeks significantly improved multiple measures of cognitive performance and mood state compared to placebo, including memory, reaction time, depression, and anxiety compared to placebo [12]

In young medical students, 300 mg/d of bacopa (50% bacosides) for 6 weeks significantly improved efficiency of attention, freedom from distractibility, and working memory. [13]

In healthy adults, 300 mg/d of bacopa (50% bacosides) for 12 weeks significantly improved speed of visual information processing, learning rate, memory consolidation, and decreased anxiety compared to placebo. [14]

Ginko Biloba

  • Neuroprotective
  • Improves memory and cognitive performance
  • Works as an antioxidant
  • Counteracts cognitive impairment
  • Improves neuroplasticity 
  • Preserves brain receptors in aging adults

Ginkgo biloba possesses an array of activities relevant to brain health and neurological function, with numerous studies showing that it is neuroprotective, an antioxidant, preserves brain receptors susceptible to age-related loss, counteracts cognitive impairment, enhances neuronal plasticity, and improves memory.[15]

A systematic review of 12 meta-analyses found that ginkgo biloba improves cognitive performance, activities of daily living, and clinical global impression in the treatment of dementia at doses greater than 200mg/day (usually 240mg/day) administered for at least 22 weeks (5 months).[16]

Coffee Fruit (NeuroFactor)

  • Increases Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF)
  • Powerful antioxidant
  • Improves neuroplasticity
  • Helps grow new neurons and prevents neurodegeneration
  • Improves long-term memory

NeuroFactor is a patented extract of the whole coffee fruit, including both the fruiting body and the coffee bean it contains. While many are familiar with the coffee bean and the joy it brings through brewing into a morning cup of Joe, the fruit contains powerful antioxidant compounds that benefit our brain and body[17], [18]

Clinical studies in healthy adults have shown that 100 mg of NeuroFactor nearly doubles concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) after 1–2 hours,[19],[20] beating out other forms of coffee bioactives, caffeine, and the phytochemical-rich grape seed extract.

BDNF is a key protein involved in brain health, well established to be critical for neuroplasticity (helps the brain adapt to new situations), [21] neurogenesis (the growth, regeneration and creation of new neurons and synapses), [22], [23] long-term memory, [24] prevention of neurodegeneration.[25]

Huperzine A

  • Promotes learning
  • Used for centuries to treat brain-based illnesses
  • Improves cognition, especially in people with Alzheimer’s and vascular dementia
  • Naturally occurring acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (primary class of drugs for treating Alzheimer’s and dementia)

Huperzine-A is an alkaloid derived from the moss Huperzia serrata, which itself has been used in traditional Chinese Medicine for centuries.

It’s a naturally occurring acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, which represents the primary class of drugs for treating Alzheimer’s dementia, and functions to inhibit the enzyme that degrades acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter responsible for learning new information. [26]

At least 20 randomized controlled trials have evaluated the efficacy of huperzine A in patients with Alzheimer’s disease, with a meta-analysis showing improvements for cognitive function, daily living activity, and global clinical assessments over 8–36 weeks.[27]

Other meta-analyses have reported that huperzine A improves cognition in those with vascular dementia, [28] as well as in those with major depression. [29]

Acetyl-L Carnitine

  • Improves brain function, especially memory and attention
  • Reduces oxidative stress
  • Protects against β-amlyoid neurotoxicity
  • Reduces mental and physical fatigue
  • Reduces depression – more effective than antidepressant drugs! (And with far less side effects)
  • Reduces pain and increases nerve conduction
  • Prevents progression of brain-related disease

Carnitine is an essential component of mitochondria, responsible for shuttling fatty acids across the mitochondrial membranes so that they can be used for energy production. Acetyl L-Carnitine (ALCAR) is a unique form of L-Carnitine that has incredible brain- and body-boosting properties.

Why? Because supplementation is well-established to increase mitochondrial function and energy production,[30], [31] particularly within the brain thanks to ALCAR’s ability to easily cross the blood-brain barrier.[32], [33], [34], [35], [36] It also protects against β-amlyoid neurotoxicity and reduces oxidative stress. [37]

Notably, ALCAR concentrations slowly decline as cognitive impairment progresses, ultimately being 36% lower in Alzheimer’s patients than healthy adults. [38]

In elderly adults suffering from excessive fatigue, ALCAR supplementation improved cognitive function, reduced mental and physical fatigue, and improved the ability to function in daily life.[39]

A meta-analysis of 21 randomized controlled trials involving patients with mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer’s disease found that ALCAR significantly improved cognitive function and prevented the progression of Alzheimer’s after as little as 3 months! [40]

A meta-analysis of 12 randomized controlled trials found ALCAR to significantly reduce depressive symptoms with an efficacy similar to antidepressant drugs, but with far less side effects. [41]

Trimethylglycine

  • Reduces oxidative stress and inflammation
  • Enhances proper protein synthesis
  • Improves cognitive function, especially memory
  • Reduces depression

One of the principal benefits of TMG supplementation is its ability to reduce homocysteine concentrations, [42], [43] which reduces exposure to oxidative stress and inflammation. [44], [45] TMG levels in the body have been linked to better cognitive function, particularly memory and executive function,[46] and the hippocampus of the brain selectively accumulates betaine.[47]

Additionally, TMG’s methylation abilities may hold effectiveness for reducing depression when paired with SAMe, [48], [49] potentially being equivalent to antidepressant drugs but with less side effects. [50]

Saffron Extract

  • As effective as prescription drugs (with less side effects) in:
    • Reducing depression
    • Treating obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
    • Improving cognitive function
  • Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory
  • Neuroprotective

Saffron is one of the most well-researched antidepressant compounds available, with three separate meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials indicating that 30 mg/d has a potency comparable to prescription drugs but with less side effects. [51], [52], [53]

Other studies have shown that saffron reduces PMS symptoms, [54] is as effective as prescription drugs for treating obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), [54] and boosts cognitive function to the same extent as prescription drugs in those with Alzheimer’s disease. [55], [56]

While the precise mechanisms of action isn’t clear, research indicates that saffron increases serotonin signaling in the brain, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and has neuroprotective effects. [57], [58]

Uridine Monophosphate

  • Part of nucleic acids in DNA and RNA
  • Critical for creation of brain phospholipids
  • Induces nerve growth
  • Increases learning
  • Improves depression

Uridine is one of the five standard nucleosides that make up the nucleic acids of genetic material (DNA and RNA). It is known to pass the blood-brain barrier, [59] and is involved in several neurologically critical functions, like synthesis of synthesis of brain phospholipids, [60] the formation of brain synapses that are required for learning and communications, [61], [62] and inducing nerve growth and differentiation. [63],[64]

In depressed adolescents with bipolar disorder, uridine supplementation for six weeks reduced depression by 58%. [65]

GABA

  • Critical for relaxation and stress management
  • Strong emotional regulator
  • Improves memory, focus, and attention
  • Increases empathy
  • Improves resiliency
  • Decreases depression and anxiety

GABA is the most potent inhibitory neurotransmitter in human brains. It regulates many of the sedative actions in brain tissue and is critical for relaxation. [66], [67] It is also critical for the regulation of neuronal communication, cognition, emotion, and memory. [68], [69], [70]

It’s been suggested that higher GABA levels help reduce distraction in the brain, which makes it possible to react and make decisions more quickly. [71] A single dose of 800 mg of GABA has been shown to improve attention and task switching in healthy young adults. [72], [73]

It has also been shown to potently combat anxiety.

Agmatine sulfate

  • Important neurotransmitter
  • Improves learning and memory
  • Reduces anxiety and depression
  • Protects neurons and enhances cell growth
  • Protects mitochondria
  • More effective at relieving pain than conventional medications

Clinical research has demonstrated agmatine’s pain-relieving properties. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of individuals with back pain from herniated lumbar discs, agmatine sulfate supplementation for two weeks reduced pain by 25–28% and improved parameters of general health by 65–76%. [74] Moreover, these benefits persisted for 2 months after supplementation ended.

In a pilot study of two men and one woman with clinical depression and currently in the grip of a major depressive disorder episode, supplementing agmatine for 3–4 weeks “showed total/incontrovertible remission of depression.” [75] Their depressive rating dropped from 32, with >17 indicating severe depression, to a depression-free score of 3. All without apparent adverse effects.

Polygala tenuifolia

  • Improves memory and combats forgetfulness
  • Supports neurotransmitters required for learning, memory, and mental health
  • Promotes growth of new neurons in the brain
  • Increases neuroplasticity and cognitive function

Polygala tenuifolia is one of the fundamental herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine, used to improve memory and combat forgetfulness with aging. There are several mechanisms through with Polygala tenuifolia may accomplish these goals:

  • Inhibiting the breakdown of acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin, and noradrenaline, neurotransmitters required for learning new information, memory storage, and overall mental health. [76], [77]
  • Increasing the expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is fundamental for neuroplasticity and neurogenesis. [78]
  • Promoting the growth of new neurons in the brain.[79]

Several studies have shown improved cognitive function and brain performance with polygala supplementation.

N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine

  • Critical for stress management
  • Boosts cognition, alertness, and information processing
  • Improves memory and mental health

L-tyrosine is a conditionally essential amino acid that serves as the precursor molecule from which we create the catecholamines: dopamine, adrenaline, and noradrenaline. Your brain needs a steady supply of tyrosine to make the catecholamines and keep your mental health at its peak, [80], [81] particularly if you are under a lot of stress. [82]

Several clinical trials have shown that tyrosine supplementation boosts cognition, alertness, and memory in stressful and demanding situations in otherwise healthy adults. [83], [84]

Pine Bark Extract

  • Potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compound
  • Improves memory and focus
  • Boosts brain function

Enzogenol is a patented pine bark extract containing over 80% proanthocyanidins, which are potent antioxidant and antiinflammatory compounds found naturally in many fruits and vegetables, but especially apples, grapes, red wine, blueberries, and chocolate. [85]

In a double-blind, randomized controlled trial of older men, 5 weeks of supplementation with 980 mg/d of Enzogenol significantly improved working memory. [86] Daily supplementation has also been shown to improve cognitive function in those with traumatic brain injury after 6 weeks. [87]

Other studies have also documented cognitive improvements following supplementation with Pycnogenol, a similar pine bark extract containing ~70% proanthocyanidins.

  • In healthy middle-aged adults, 150 mg per day of pine bark extract for 12 weeks reduced oxidative stress by 30% while improving cognitive performance and mood. [88]
  • In older adults with high levels of oxidative stress, 100 mg per day of pine bark extract for one year reduced oxidative stress by 28% and improved cognitive function, attention, and memory. [89]
  • In adults with mild cognitive impairment, 100 mg per day of pine bark extract for 8 weeks improved cognitive function by 18%.[90]

Magnesium taurate

  • Over 300 enzymes require magnesium to function properly!
  • Required for optimal nerve transmission
  • Protects against cell death
  • Prevents mitochondrial dysfunction
  • Prevents migraines
  • Improves anxiety and depression
  • Slows development of and severity of Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s
  • Reduces risk of stroke

Magnesium is required for over 300 enzymes to function properly. [91] We need it for our muscles to contract, to regulate blood pressure, for proper insulin signaling, and for the synthesis of DNA and proteins. Within the brain and nervous system, magnesium is required for optimal nerve transmission and protection against excitotoxicity (excessive excitation leading to cell death). [92], [93]

Not all forms of magnesium are the same. You’ll find many types on the market, and the evidence is clear that magnesium taurate demonstrates a superior ability to enter into the brain and increase the brain’s magnesium status.

One study compared the tissue distribution of magnesium 8 hours after taking equal amounts of magnesium citrate, malate, oxide, sulfate, and taurate. [94] It was shown that magnesium taurate increased brain magnesium concentrations 10–20% more than the other forms.

A meta-analysis of 8 randomized controlled trials found that supplementing with magnesium reduced the frequency and intensity of migraines regardless of age, sex, or dose. [95]

A systematic review of 18 studies found that magnesium supplementation could help reduce feelings of anxiety in susceptible individuals. [96]

Dietary magnesium intake is associated with a lower risk for depression, [97] and supplementation with 500 mg of magnesium oxide or magnesium chloride reduces depressive symptoms in adults with mild to moderate depression. [98], [99] Some case reports have even shown rapid recovery (less than 7 days) from major depression using 125–300 mg of magnesium (as glycinate and taurinate) with each meal and at bedtime.[100]

GET YOUR ULTRABRAIN NOW

FREE shipping within U.S. | We also ship internationally!

(For international orders: All shipments are shipped Duties, Customs, & Taxes unpaid. Buyer is responsible for delivery fees.) 

How UltraBrain Helps

The specific stack of ingredients in UltraBrain work together to stimulate your brain in multiple ways:

BRAIN CLARITY

Improve your memory, concentration, and focus.

Remove your mental fog and clouded thoughts.

BRAIN ENERGY

Boost your alertness, stamina, and energy.

Accomplish mentally demanding tasks and not feel tired.

BRAIN STRENGTH

Handle and recover from stress better.

Bounce back faster.

Become less fragileand anxious.

BRAIN BALANCE

Maintain an even, joyful mood that easily feels and appreciates pleasure.

Eliminate depression and anxiety and be happy, optimistic, and grateful.

Formulated To Give You Your Youthful, Alert, Energetic Brain Back.

The 18 science-backed ingredients – in effective dosages in each serving – will help heal your brain, allowing your cognitive function to reach its full potential.

What Happens After Just A Few Daily Doses

You’ll notice dramatic improvements in your mental performance and will be able to:

  • Shut down neuroinflammation – and increase mitochondrial health in the brain, supercharging your brain cell communication and stopping brain-related fatigue.

  • Repair neurotransmitter imbalances – positively impacting your cognitive function and learning, your mood and ability to feel joy, your sense of relaxation and calm, your stress response and tolerance, and your energy and wakefulness.

  • Protect your blood brain barrier – keeping toxins out of your brain and preventing negative immune reactions.
  • Maintain steady blood sugar levels – which will greatly reduce brain fog and anxiety. Ultrabrain not only has zero sugars but it also has the proper amount of protein to help regulate your glucose.

  • Regulate your appetite – eating less will reduce inflammation and cellular damage and thus boost your brain health.

  • Minimize your caffeine dependence – so you can correct your cognitive function and mood and significantly raise your baseline energy levels.

  • Develop metabolic flexibility – helping your body seamlessly switch from burning calories from food to tapping into stored sources of fuel (ie body fat) when needed. Your body’s capacity to easily shift like this is important for maintaining proper brain function and energy levels.

When your brainpower is optimized like this, you'll be better able to:

  • Make decisions quickly so you can work more efficiently and get your to-dos done in much less time!

  • Sleep soundly through the night so you can bounce out of bed without the need for coffee. 

  • Handle bad news and stressful situations without anxiety or worry.

  • Confidently tackle your problems, big or small.

  • Be clear headed and able to concentrate for long periods of time.

  • Recall all the important details of your life with ease (and without the need for post-it notes).

  • Complete mentally challenging tasks with plenty of energy to spare. Now is the time to crack open that non-fiction book.

THE ULTIMATE SUPPLEMENT

Custom formulated with 18 power-packed nutrients, UltraBrain is the ONLY supplement you need to heal your brain and rewire it for lasting clarity, resilience, joy, and energy.

That’s because each of the ingredients are scientifically proven to tackle all types of brain dysfunction.

Take it each day and heal damaged cells, reduce neuroinflammation, and repair faulty communication.

Take it each day and experience renewed mental strength and vitality – that you haven’t felt in years.

​GET YOUR ULTRABRAIN NOW!

FREE shipping within U.S. | We also ship internationally!

(For international orders: All shipments are shipped Duties, Customs, & Taxes unpaid. Buyer is responsible for delivery fees.)

References

1. Spasov, A. A., Wikman, G. K., Mandrikov, V. B., Mironova, I. A. & Neumoin, V. V. A double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of the stimulating and adaptogenic effect of Rhodiola rosea SHR-5 extract on the fatigue of students caused by stress during an examination period with a repeated low-dose regimen. Phytomedicine 7, 85–89 (2000).

2. Edwards, D., Heufelder, A. & Zimmermann, A. Therapeutic effects and safety of Rhodiola rosea extract WS® 1375 in subjects with life-stress symptoms–results of an open-label study. Phytother. Res. 26, 1220–1225 (2012).

3. Lekomtseva, Y., Zhukova, I. & Wacker, A. Rhodiola rosea in Subjects with Prolonged or Chronic Fatigue Symptoms: Results of an Open-Label Clinical Trial. Complement Med Res 24, 46–52 (2017).

4. Vigna, L. et al. Hericium erinaceus Improves Mood and Sleep Disorders in Patients Affected by Overweight or Obesity: Could Circulating Pro-BDNF and BDNF Be Potential Biomarkers? Evid. Based. Complement. Alternat. Med. 2019, 7861297 (2019).

5. Chin, E. W. M. & Goh, E. L. K. Modulating neuronal plasticity with choline. Neural Regeneration Res. 14, 1697–1698 (2019).

6. Chin, E. W. M. & Goh, E. L. K. Modulating neuronal plasticity with choline. Neural Regeneration Res. 14, 1697–1698 (2019).

7. Wang, J., Zhang, H.-Y. & Tang, X.-C. Cholinergic deficiency involved in vascular dementia: possible mechanism and strategy of treatment. Acta Pharmacol. Sin. 30, 879–888 (2009).

8. Parnetti, L., Mignini, F., Tomassoni, D., Traini, E. & Amenta, F. Cholinergic precursors in the treatment of cognitive impairment of vascular origin: ineffective approaches or need for re-evaluation? J. Neurol. Sci. 257, 264–269 (2007).

9.  Gibellini, F. & Smith, T. K. The Kennedy pathway–De novo synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine. IUBMB Life 62, 414–428 (2010).

10. Babb, S. M., Appelmans, K. E., Renshaw, P. F., Wurtman, R. J. & Cohen, B. M. Differential effect of CDP-choline on brain cytosolic choline levels in younger and older subjects as measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Psychopharmacology  127, 88–94 (1996).

11. Fioravanti, M. & Yanagi, M. Cytidinediphosphocholine (CDP-choline) for cognitive and behavioural disturbances associated with chronic cerebral disorders in the elderly. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. CD000269 (2005).

12. Calabrese, C. et al. Effects of a standardized Bacopa monnieri extract on cognitive performance, anxiety, and depression in the elderly: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J. Altern. Complement. Med. 14, 707–713 (2008).

13. Kumar, N. et al. Efficacy of Standardized Extract of Bacopa monnieri (Bacognize®) on Cognitive Functions of Medical Students: A Six-Week, Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial. Evid. Based. Complement. Alternat. Med. 2016, 4103423 (2016).

14. Stough, C. et al. The chronic effects of an extract of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi) on cognitive function in healthy human subjects. Psychopharmacology  156, 481–484 (2001).

15. Singh, S. K., Srivastav, S., Castellani, R. J., Plascencia-Villa, G. & Perry, G. Neuroprotective and Antioxidant Effect of Ginkgo biloba Extract Against AD and Other Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics 16, 666–674 (2019).

16. Yuan, Q., Wang, C.-W., Shi, J. & Lin, Z.-X. Effects of Ginkgo biloba on dementia: An overview of systematic reviews. J. Ethnopharmacol. 195, 1–9 (2017).

17. Mullen, W. et al. The antioxidant and chlorogenic acid profiles of whole coffee fruits are influenced by the extraction procedures. J. Agric. Food Chem. 59, 3754–3762 (2011).

18. Duangjai, A. et al. Comparison of antioxidant, antimicrobial activities and chemical profiles of three coffee (Coffea arabica L.) pulp aqueous extracts. Integr Med Res 5, 324–331 (2016).

19. Reyes-Izquierdo, T. et al. Modulatory effect of coffee fruit extract on plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in healthy subjects. Br. J. Nutr. 110, 420–425 (2013).

20. Reyes-Izquierdo, T., Argumedo, R., Shu, C., Nemzer, B. & Pietrzkowski, Z. Stimulatory Effect of Whole Coffee Fruit Concentrate Powder on Plasma Levels of Total and Exosomal Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Healthy Subjects: An Acute Within-Subject Clinical Study. FNS 04, 984–990 (2013).

21. Calabrese, F. et al. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor: a bridge between inflammation and neuroplasticity. Front. Cell. Neurosci. 8, 430 (2014).

22. Rossi, C. et al. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is required for the enhancement of hippocampal neurogenesis following environmental enrichment. Eur. J. Neurosci. 24, 1850–1856 (2006).

23. Cohen-Cory, S., Kidane, A. H., Shirkey, N. J. & Marshak, S. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and the development of structural neuronal connectivity. Dev. Neurobiol. 70, 271–288 (2010).

24.  Bekinschtein, P. et al. BDNF is essential to promote persistence of long-term memory storage. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 105, 2711–2716 (2008).

25.  Chen, S.-D., Wu, C.-L., Hwang, W.-C. & Yang, D.-I. More Insight into BDNF against Neurodegeneration: Anti-Apoptosis, Anti-Oxidation, and Suppression of Autophagy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 18, (2017).

26.  Dos Santos, T. C., Gomes, T. M., Pinto, B. A. S., Camara, A. L. & Paes, A. M. de A. Naturally Occurring Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors and Their Potential Use for Alzheimer’s Disease Therapy. Front. Pharmacol. 9, 1192 (2018).

27. Yang, G., Wang, Y., Tian, J. & Liu, J.-P. Huperzine A for Alzheimer’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. PLoS One 8, e74916 (2013).

28. Xing, S.-H., Zhu, C.-X., Zhang, R. & An, L. Huperzine a in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia: a meta-analysis. Evid. Based. Complement. Alternat. Med. 2014, 363985 (2014).

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